重度知的障害を伴う自閉スペクトラム症幼児に対する選択行動支援 ―介入方法を示唆するアセスメントの開発―  [in Japanese] Development of an Assessment Method for Deciding on Interventions to Facilitate Choice Behavior: Children With Severe Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 臼井 潤記 USUI Junki
    • 千葉県発達障害者支援センター(現所属)・筑波大学大学院人間総合科学研究科(研究時所属) Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba / Present affıliation: Chiba Prefecture Support Center for Persons with Developmental Disorders
    • 佐々木 銀河 SASAKI Ginga
    • 筑波大学ダイバーシティ・アクセシビリティ・キャリアセンター Center for Diversity, Accessibility and Career Development, University of Tsukuba

Abstract

<p>本研究では、児童発達支援事業所を利用する重度知的障害を伴う自閉スペクトラム症幼児3名を対象に、選択行動を促進する介入方法を示唆する選択テストを開発し、その予測的妥当性を検証することを目的とした。選択テストは、選択行動の困難要因が「アイテムの強化価の低さ」か「選択対象物を弁別するスキルの未獲得」であるかを分類するために、おやつとおもちゃの2つの強化子条件、選択肢の次元(実物・写真カード)、選択肢数(1~3肢)で構成された。選択テストの結果に基づいて、1名には選択対象物を弁別するスキルを形成するために弁別刺激化手続きを、2名にはより強化価の高いアイテムを選定するために選好アセスメントに基づく選択肢の再構成を実施した。それによって、対象児における選択行動が促進された。これらの結果から、本研究で開発した選択テストは、対象児の選択行動の困難要因および介入方法の有効性を適切に予測することが明らかとなった。</p>

<p>An assessment test was developed that could provide information for deciding what intervention methods to use with children with severe intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorder, in order to facilitate choice behavior; also, the predictive validity of the test was examined. Participants were 3 boys with severe intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ages: 3 years 7 months; 6 years 0 months; 4 years 8 months) who were attending a child development support center. The choice test was composed of 2 reinforcers (snacks and toys) and 2 choice dimensions (tangible items and photographs). The assessment scored the number of choices (1 to 3) in order to classify whether a child's diffıculty in making selections was because of the low reinforcer value of an item or because the child had not learned skills needed for discriminating objects of choice. After the choice assessment, the children were trained with discriminative stimulus procedures to develop skills needed for discriminating choice objects. Two of the children were taught to estimate the reinforcement value of an item through assessment of their preferences and a revision of the list of items. The choice behaviors of the 3 children increased after the choice assessment and intervention. These results suggest that the choice assessment test could predict each child's diffıculty in making a choice and could be used to develop interventions that might be effective.</p>

Journal

  • The Japanese Journal of Special Education

    The Japanese Journal of Special Education 57(1), 25-35, 2019

    The Japanese Association of Special Education

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007807067
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00172513
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3374
  • NDL Article ID
    029906836
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-314
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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