教育をめぐる学校・家庭・学校外の関係性の変容:――ドイツ・ブレーメン州における移民集住地域の終日学校を事例に――  [in Japanese] Changing the Relationship between School, Home, and Outside School in Education::Focusing on an All-day School in an Area of Bremen, Germany, with a High Number of Immigrants  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

<p> 2000年代に入り,いわゆる「PISAショック」を経験したドイツでは,移民の子どもの低学力ならびに移民の子どもと移民背景をもたない子どもとの間の学力格差が深刻な社会問題として受けとめられた。2003年以降,学力格差是正策の一環として,それまで半日(遅くとも13時頃まで)で終わっていた学校を終日(16時頃まで)とする学校制度改革が進んだ。本稿はこの学校制度の改革過程について,学校,家庭,学校外の関係性の変容という視点から,ドイツ・ブレーメン州(都市州)における移民集住地域の終日学校(ハイドン校)を事例に分析を行ったものである。<br> 本稿では政策過渡期(2007年~2009年)における三者間の関係性を歴史的な観点から振り返り,その時の関係性が今日の状況(2015年~2018年)にどのような含意をもっているのか,二つの時間軸から分析を行った。分析から,三者の関係性は可変的であるものの,それまでの線引き,すなわち領域ごとにきっかりと役割を分けることの意味あいが薄れていることが明らかとなった。学校が終日化したことによって,多様な領域を横断し,連携・調整するものとして教育を位置づけ,子どもの育ちを支える仕組みを根本的に変えていることが明らかとなった。それはまた伝統的な役割規範になじみのない多様な背景をもつ家庭を前提とした議論が,移民受け入れ社会としてのドイツに求められていることを示唆した。</p>

<p>In the early 2000s, Germany experienced a so-called "PISA shock". This was treated as a serious social problem, because PISA revealed the low educational performance of immigrant students in Germany in comparison to other countries. It also revealed a serious performance gap between immigrant students and non-immigrant students. These problems were discussed from the aspect of immigrants' social integration.<br><br>Since 2003, the school system has been radically reformed. Germany had been one of the few countries in Europe that still maintained the half-day school system. In this system, school ends by 1 pm or earlier, and three areas—school, home, and outside school—are recognized as partners, sharing the role of education equally. The half-day school system and the clear sharing of educational roles among these three areas were the traditional norms and concept of education in Germany. However, in order to reduce the performance gap, in recent times the school day has been expanded to the afternoons through an all-day school policy. This policy introduced a new school system, the so-called "all-day school" system. Under this system, school ends around 4 pm. This paper analyzes this school reform from the viewpoint of the changing relationship between school, home and outside school in education.<br><br>This paper focuses on the case of Haydn School in Bremen. Bremen is one of 16 German Länder that introduced the "unique" all-day school policy. All-day schools are categorized into 3 types by KMK, but Bremen focused politically on only one type, namely, the "all students are obligated type". This school system obligates all students to stay in school until 4 pm for more than 3 days a week. In order to reduce the performance gap, the "obligation type" system has been widely implemented in Bremen. The fieldwork in Haydn School was conducted during the transition period of the policy (2007-2009) and also in the consolidation period (2015-2018). First, this paper analyzes the relationship among the three areas (school, home, and outside school) historically. Next, the meaning of this changing relationship is discussed taking into consideration today's situation.<br><br>Analysis of this research shows that the introduction of the all-day school system has diminished the meaning of the separate roles for the three areas. Drawing out a clear role for each area is no longer possible in the "obligation type" all-day school system. This paper suggests that the traditional norms of education in Germany are being questioned because of the increasing number of families with diverse backgrounds. These families are not familiar with the "German educational tradition."<br><br>The widespread introduction of the all-day school system in recent times has led to the reconstruction of the methods and concept of education in Germany. Under the all-day school system, education is now described as an interaction among diverse areas, working together, and coordinating those diverse areas based on the school. This phenomenon suggests that the framework supporting children's growth in Germany is now changing fundamentally.</p>

Journal

  • The Journal of Educational Sociology

    The Journal of Educational Sociology 102(0), 195-215, 2018

    THE JAPAN SOCIETY OF EDUCATIONAL SOCIOLOGY

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    130007808404
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN0005780X
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    0387-3145
  • NDL Article ID
    029042104
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-188
  • Data Source
    NDL  J-STAGE 
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