明治期における近江日野商人山中兵右衞門家の支店経営 : 小田原店と伊豆南条店を中心に [in Japanese] Branch Management by the Oumi-Hino Merchant Yamanaka Hyouemon Family in the Meiji era : The Case of its Odawara and Izunanjyo Branches [in Japanese]
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This paper investigates branch management by the Yamanaka Hyouemon family in the Meiji era that was not fully clarified in the recent publication "Studies of an Oumi-Hino Merchant–Management and Business in the Yamanaka Hyouemon Family" (edited and authored by Hiroshi Matsumoto, Nihon Keizai Hyouronsha Ltd., 2010), including the relationships between the branches and the head office, and the collaborative relationships among the branches. Around 1880, profits remained stagnant in the Odawara and Izunanjo branches due to weak demand caused by frequent liquor tax hikes and deflation-inducing measures. Though the two branches initially relied on funds put up by the head office in Gotemba to overcome such difficulties, sales began to pick up around 1900 despite the heavy liquor taxes, and operating profits improved. Eventually, the Odawara branch granted overdrafts to the head office, through which the business activities of the head family in Hino were greatly assisted. In terms of working conditions for employees, the salaries of sales personnel were increased with a revision of rules in 1897, while a salary increase for brewery apprentices, carpenters and day workers was restricted to reduce wages. In addition, part of the funds reserved from salaries was loaned to mid-level apprentices to help protract and stabilize the service period of employees in the middle and late Meiji period. The branches also transacted business among themselves, swapping products and stock frequently, greatly improving the product range of each branch while diversifying the risk against failure in brewing. After around 1900, the Numazu branch, which had no brewing section of its own, expanded its role as the sales division for products produced by other branches, while introducing products such as sake and soy sauce from areas that were home to large-scale brewing industries, such as Nada and Fushimi. In this way, the Odawara and Izunanjo branches received financial support from the head office while forming organic and complementary relationships with the Numazu branch and the Gotemba head office in terms of product supply, making great developments after the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars and assisting the head office financially. Each branch contributed to its local community while expanding its business activities, evolving as the area's largest business establishment and brewery.
滋賀大学経済学部研究年報 19, 31-53, 2012