Axonal transport in neuronal growth and regeneration
Axonal transport in neuronal growth and regeneration
（Advances in neurochemistry / edited by B. W. Agranoff and M. H. Aprison, v. 6）
Plenum Press, c1984
Includes bibliographies and index
Over the past several years, the pace of research on the control of axonal growth has increased at a remarkable rate, and this activity is reflected in a growing literature dealing with various aspects of axonal growth and regener- ation. It appears timely to review the role played by axonal transport in the intrinsic responses of neurons in the growth and regrowth processes. Through the cooperation of the senior editors of this series, we have been given the opportunity to bring such a focus to the current volume. We wish to acknowledge that the contributing authors attended a confer- ence on "The Role of Axonal Transport in Neuronal Growth and Regenera- tion" held in Tallahassee, Florida in March, 1983, sponsored by the Psycho- biology Research Center of the Florida State University. It is our hope that many of the perceptions and insights expressed in these chapters resulted from our interactions.
1 Axoplasmic Transport in Relation to Nerve Fiber Regeneration.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Models Proposed for Regeneration.- 3. The Transport Filament Model.- 4. Slow Transport as a Drop Off and Turnover of Components.- 5. Routing in Relation to Transport and Regeneration.- 6. A Hypothesis for Selective Neurite Growth on the Basis of Routing.- 7. References.- 2 Basic Properties of fast Axonal Transport and the Role of fast Transport in Axonal Growth.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Structures in Fast Axonal Transport.- 3. Organization of Fast Axonal Transport.- 4. Molecular Bases of Movement.- 5. Role of Fast Axonal Transport in Axonal Growth and Regeneration.- 6. References.- 3 Retrograde Signaling after Nerve Injury.- 1. Nerve Cell Body Response to Axotomy.- 2. Retrograde Axonal Transport: Physiological Significance.- 3. Chromatolysis and Retrograde Axonal Transport: Time Relationship.- 4. Possible Signal Mechanisms Mediated by Retrograde Transport.- 4.1. Loss of Repressor Factors.- 4.2. Alterations at the Site of the Lesion.- 5. Retrograde Transport during Regeneration.- 6. Concluding Remarks.- 7. References.- 4 Retrograde Axonal Transport and Nerve Regeneration.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Retrograde Transport following Axonal Injury.- 2.1. The Injury Signal.- 2.2. Retrograde Transport of Endogenous Materials in Intact Axons.- 2.3. Acute Effects of Injury on Retrograde Transport of Endogenous Materials.- 2.4. Abnormal Reversal of Transport as a Putative Axotomy Signal.- 3. Changes in Retrograde Transport during Regeneration.- 3.1. Time Course of Endogenous Protein Transport.- 3.2. Retrograde Transport of Signals for Axon Elongation and for Reinnervation of Target.- 4. Control of Regeneration Rate.- 5. Conclusion.- 6. References.- 5 Biochemical Aspects of the Regenerating Goldfish Visual System.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Behavioral Evaluation of Recovered Visual Function.- 3. Expiant Culture.- 4. Retinal Incubations.- 4.1. Protein Synthesis.- 4.2. Altered Enzyme Levels.- 5. Axonal Transport of Proteins Associated with Regeneration.- 6. References.- 6 Axonal Transport of Glycoproteins in Regenerating Nerve.- 1. Functions and Growth-Related Changes in Glycoproteins of Nonneuronal Cells.- 2. Glycoproteins and Neuronal Growth.- 3. Axonal Transport of Glycoproteins in Mature and Growing Neurons.- 3.1. Mature Nerve.- 3.2. Growing Nerve.- 4. Axonal Transport of Glycoproteins in Regenerating Olfactory Nerve.- 4.1. The Olfactory Nerve Preparation.- 4.2. Regeneration-Related Changes in Axonally Transported Glycoproteins.- 4.3. Regeneration-Related Changes in Nonneuronal Glycoproteins.- 5. Conclusions.- 6. References.- 7 Transport of Transmitter-Related Enzymes: Changes after Injury.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods.- 2.1. Single Ligation.- 2.2. Double Ligation.- 2.3. Stop-Flow.- 2.4. Effect of Injury.- 3. "Cholinergic" Enzymes.- 3.1. Choline Acetyltransferase.- 3.2. Acetylcholinesterase.- 4. Adrenergic Enzymes.- 4.1. Cells of Origin.- 4.2. Axonal Transport.- 5. Other Enzymes.- 6. Conclusions.- 7. References.- 8 Transfer-Rna-Mediated Posttranslation al Aminoacylation of Proteins in Axons.- 1. Introduction.- 2. RNA is Present in Axons.- 3. RNA in Axons Is 4 S RNA.- 4. The 4 S RNA in Axons Is Transfer RNA.- 5. Transfer RNA in Axons Serves as an Amino Acid Donor in Posttranslational Protein Modification.- 5.1. Squid Axoplasm.- 5.2. Rat Sciatic Nerve.- 5.3. Evidence That the Reaction Is Dependent on the Presence of tRNA.- 5.4. Evidence That the Radioactivity in the Product Is Amino Acid Enzymatically Incorporated into Protein.- 5.5. Regenerating Optic Axons of Goldfish.- 6. Posttranslational Modification of Proteins by tRNA-Dependent Amino Acid Addition Occurs in Growth Cones of Regenerating Optic Axons of Goldfish.- 7. References.- 9 Molecular Events Associated with Peripheral Nerve Regeneration.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods.- 3. Protein Synthesis after Nerve Damage.- 4. Proteins Transported after Nerve Damage.- 5. Axon Regrowth without Changes in Synthesis or Transport.- 6. The Fate of Axonally Transported Proteins at Regrowing Tips.- 7. Conclusions.- 8. References.- 10 Target-Dependent and Target-Independent Changes in Rapid Axonal Transport During Regeneration of the Goldfish Retinotectal Pathway.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Qualitative Studies on the Changes in Rapidly Transported Proteins during Regeneration.- 2.1. Unidimensional Gel Studies.- 2.2. Two-Dimensional Gel Analyses.- 3. Target Regulation of Rapidly Transported Proteins during Regeneration.- 4. Summary and Conclusions.- 5. References.- 11 Regulation of Axon Growth and Cytoskeletal Development.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Growth-Associated Proteins and Axon Growth.- 2.1. Characteristics of Growth-Associated Proteins.- 2.2. Regulation of the Synthesis and Transport of GAPs.- 3. Regulation of the Neurofilament Cross-Linking Polypeptide during Neuronal Development.- 4. References.- 12 Effect of a Conditioning Lesion on Axonal Transport During Regeneration: the Role of Slow Transport.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. The Conditioning Lesion Effect.- 1.2. Axonal Transport of Proteins during Regeneration.- 2. Effects of Conditioning Lesions on Axonal Transport.- 2.1. Effect on Protein Synthesis.- 2.2. Effect on Fast Transport.- 2.3. Effect on Slow Transport.- 2.4. Effect of Conditioning Events on Transport and Outgrowth.- 3. Discussion.- 4. References.- 13 The Relationship of Slow Axonal flow to Nerve Elongation and Degeneration.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Influence of Temperature on Mechanisms Involved in Neuronal Maintenance and Regeneration.- 2.1. Rapid Axonal Transport.- 2.2. Retrograde Axonal Transport.- 2.3. Slow Axonal Flow.- 2.4. Protein Synthesis.- 2.5. Regeneration.- 3. Changes in Axonal Transport during Development and Regeneration.- 3.1. Changes in Amounts, Rates, and Molecular Composition.- 3.2. Correlation between Transport Rates and Elongation.- 4. Regeneration of the Garfish Olfactory Nerve.- 4.1. Velocities of Axonal Elongation.- 4.2. Rates of Axonal Transport in Growing Fibers.- 5. Axonal Degeneration.- 5.1. Influence of Temperature on Degeneration.- 5.2. Axonal Transport in Nerve Segments Isolated from in the Cell Bodies.- 5.3. Degeneration of the Olfactory Nerve.- 6. Conclusions.- 7. References.- 14 Neurofilament Transport in Axonal Regeneration: Implications for the Control of Axonal Caliber.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cytoskeletal Composition in Normal Nerves.- 3. Neurofilament Transport and Axonal Caliber in Regenerating Axons.- 3.1. Changes in the Proximal Stump.- 3.2. Regenerating Sprouts.- 4. Models for the Control of Axonal Caliber by Neurofilament Transport.- 5. Conclusion.- 6. References.- 15 Calcium-Activated Protease and the Regulation of the Axonal Cytoskeleton.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Calcium-Dependent Breakdown of the Axonal Cytoskeleton.- 3. Calcium-Activated Proteolysis of Axonal Cytoskeletal Proteins.- 4. Isolation of Calcium-Activated Protease from Neural Tissues.- 5. Turnover of Neurofilament Proteins and the Regulation of the Axonal Cytoskeleton.- 6. References.
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