The thermophysics of glaciers
The thermophysics of glaciers
（Glaciology and quaternary geology）
D. Reidel Pub. Co. , Sold and distributed in the U.S.A. and Canada by Kluwer Academic, c1986
大学図書館所蔵 件 / 全7件
Translation of: Teplofizika lednikovykh pokrovov
Glaciers or ice sheets are natural accumulations of ice possessing in trinsic motion, which have appeared on the Earth's land surface as a result of the accumulation and transformation of precipitation . Only a very small portion of the surface of the land is now covered by glaciers, and at low latitudes they are found justat high elevations, on mountain slopes. However, glaciers are known to play very important roles in shaping the topography of the Earth, in determiningits past, present, and future climate, and in creating the state of the world Ocean. Recently there has also been a marked increase in the practical value of our knowledge about glaciers, as a part of the human habitat and as a factor affecting the economy. Interest in glaciers on other planets is also growing. Voyages of spacecraft to Jupiter, for instance, have shown that some Jovian satellites possess ice sheets tens of kilometers in thickness.
1: Observations of the Thermal Regime of Glaciers.- 1.1. Measurements of Temperatures Inside Glaciers.- 1.1.1. General Description.- 1.1.2. Temperature Sensors.- 1.1.3. Connecting Lines and Measuring Circuits.- 1.1.4. Measuring Equipment. Increasing the Accuracy. Errors.- 1.1.5. Heating of Temperature Sensors at the Time of Measurement.- 1.2. Sources of Errors During Temperature Measurements in Glacier Boreholes.- 1.2.1. The Temperature Variation Due to the Heat Generated During Drilling. The Stabilization Time..- 1.2.2. The Effect of Free Natural Convection.- 1.2.3. Effects of Other Factors.- 1.2.4. Temperature Measurements at the End (Bottom) of a Borehole.- 2: Thermal Drilling of Glaciers.- 2.1. The Theory of Drilling by Contact with a Heated Solid Surface.- 2.1.1. The Drill Efficiency.- 2.1.2. The Ice Temperature Ahead of a Moving Thermal Drill.- 2.1.3. The Ice Temperature at the Borehole Walls and Bottom.- 2.1.4. The Temperature of the Drill Heating Surface.- 2.1.5. The Thickness of the Water Layer Between the Drill Heater and the Ice.- 2.1.6. Melting or Freezing of the Borehole Side Walls.- 2.2. Methods of Thermal Drilling of Ice.- 2.2.1. Drilling with a High-Speed Jet of Gas or Liquid Without Melting the Ice.- 2.2.2. Drilling with a Gas or Liquid Jet that Melts or Vaporizes the Ice.- 2.2.3. Ice Drilling by Contact with a Heated Solid Surface.- 2.3. Antifreeze Thermal Drilling by Direct Contact with a Solid Heater.- 2.3.1. Drilling Cold Ice with Water Retention in the Borehole.- 2.3.2. Equipment for Antifreeze Thermal Drilling.- 2.3.3. Thermal-Drilling Methods.- 2.3.4. Extracting a 'Bottom' Core.- 3: The Theory of the Thermal Regime of Glaciers.- 3.1. The Fundamental Equations and Conditions Describing the State of a Glacier.- 3.2. Equations of Motion of 1).- 4.3.2. Warming Due to Ice Motion (KT < 1).- 4.4. Temperature Gradients in the Glacier Interior.- 4.5. The Effect of the Dissipation Function.- 5: Approximate Methods for Studying the Temperature Field in a Flat Two-Dimensional Glacier With Block Sliding.- 5.1. The Method of Polynomials.- 5.1.1. The Method of the 'Zeroth Moment'.- 5.1.2. The Method of the 'Zeroth' and 'First' Moments.- 5.1.3. Improving the Method of Polynomials.- 5.1.4. The Effect of Internal Heat Sources.- 5.1.5. A More General Statement of the Problem.- 5.2. The Temperature Field in a Glacier with a Varying Surface Temperature.- 5.2.1. A Particular Solution of the Nonhomogeneous System.- 5.2.2. The General Solution. Taking the Initial Condition into Account..- 5.2.3. The Final Expression for the Temperature Field.- 6: The Thermal Regime of Glaciers.- 6.1. Thermophysical Studies of Accumulation-Ablation at the Upper and Lower Surfaces of Glaciers.- 6.2. Boundary Conditions at the Lower Surface of an Inland Glacier.- 6.2.1. Heat Balance at the Lower Surface of a Glacier.- 6.2.2. The Heat Flux Upward into the Glacier Due to Thermal Conduction.- 6.2.3. Six Types of Thermal Regimes for a Glacier Bedded on a Water-Permeable Layer.- 6.2.4. The Critical Thickness of a Glacier.- 6.3. Heat Sources Participating in the Heat Balance at the Bottom of a Glacier.- 6.3.1. The Traditional Representation of the Motion-Caused Heat Flux Arriving at the Bed.- 6.3.2. Determination of the Heat Developed at the Glacier Bed.- 6.3.3. Determination of the Heat of Internal Friction for a Glacier.- 6.3.4. Source-Strength Distribution over Glacier Thickness.- 7: The Thermal Regime of Inland Ice Caps.- 7.1. The Thermal Regime of the Antarctic Ice Sheet.- 7.1.1. A Model of a Steady-State Flat Glacier with Block Sliding and Melting at the Bed (Central Antarctica).- 7.1.2. Subglacial Lakes.- 7.1.3. The Temperature Distribution in an Ice Cap.- 7.2. Numerical Modeling of the Temperature Field of an Ice Cap.- 7.2.1. A New Statement of the Problem.- 7.2.2. Modeling the Antarctic Ice Sheet Along Flow Lines Through Vostok Station to Byrd Glacier and Through Byrd Station to the Ross Ice Shelf.- 7.2.3. The Effect of Climatic Changes on the Thermal State of Large Inland Ice Sheets.- 8: The Thermal Regime of Mountain Glaciers.- 8.1. The Melting of a Contaminated Glacier Surface.- 8.1.1. Albedo of Blackened Surface. Simplest Case..- 8.1.2. Albedo of Blackened Surface. Probability of Particle Overlapping..- 8.1.3. Albedo for Blackening with a Mixture of Different-Sized Particles.- 8.1.4. Effective Particle Size as a Characteristic for Prolonged Blackening Action.- 8.1.5. Determination of Effective Diameter and Sphere of Influence.- 8.1.6. Intensity of Artificial Melting.- 8.2. Water in Mountain Glaciers.- 8.2.1. The Thermies of the Water Under Mountain Glaciers.- 8.2.2. The Temperature of the Water on a Melting Glacier Surface.- 8.2.3. Melting Mechanism of Blackened Surface.- 8.2.4. The Stable Prolonged Melting of a Blackened Surface (Simplest Case).- 9: The Thermophysics of Ice Shelves.- 9.1. Melting at the Bottom of an Ice Shelf.- 9.1.1. The Englacial Temperature Field as an Indicator of Melting.- 9.1.2. Modeling the Heat Exchange Under a Glacier as Flow Around Plates and Slabs.- 9.1.3. Melting at the Bottom of an Ice Shelf.- 9.2. Freezing at the Bottom of an Ice Shelf.- 9.2.1. The Englacial Temperature Field as an Indicator of Freezing.- 9.2.2. Freezing Accompanying a Reduced Salinity at the Ice-Seawater Interface.- 9.2.3. Freezing in the Seaward Part of a Large Ice Shelf.- 9.3. Thermophysical Studies of Melting and Freezing at the Bottom of the Ross Ice Shelf.- 9.3.1. The Thermal Regime of the Ross Sea Under the Ice Shelf.- 9.3.2. Detection of Bottom Freezing by Thermal Core Drilling.- 9.3.3. Structure of Frozen-on Base of Ice Shelf and Freezing Rate.- 9.3.4. Direct Monitoring of Melting-Freezing Processes at the Base of the Ross Ice Shelf.- 10: Applications of the Thermophysics of Glaciers.- 10.1. The Thermal Pollution of Ice Caps with Heat-Emitting Industrial Wastes.- 10.1.1. Disposal at the Glacier Bed.- 10.1.2. Slowing the Descent of Heat-Emitting Wastes to the Glacier Bed.- 10.1.3. Burial of Heat-Emitting Wastes Close to the Glacier Surface.- 10.1.4. The Temperature Disturbance of the Interior of the Ice Sheet (Antarctica) by Heat-Emitting Wastes.- 10.1.5. Formation of a Pocket. The Thermal Disturbance at the Surface Due to Heat-Emitting Waste Deposits.- 10.1.6. Interference of Heat-Emitting Waste Deposits.- 10.2. Reconstruction of the Quaternary Inland Ice Sheet of Europe.- 10.2.1. The Form of the Surface of an Ice Sheet.- 10.2.2. The Form of the Surface of a Steady-State Ice Sheet.- 10.2.3. The Form of the Surface of an Ice Sheet with an Ablation Zone.- 10.2.4. The Surface of the Last Quaternary Ice Sheet of Europe.- 10.2.5. The Thermal Regime of the Last European Ice Sheet.- 10.2.6. Erosion and Accumulation Activity.- References.
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