The problem of ice destruction comes most frequently to our attention in engineering glaciology and ice engineering because it is essential in the solution of many problems in the polar regions of the Earth. Ice destruction (like the destruction of any other material, in principle) is a complex problem at the junction of solid-state physics, continuum mechanics, and materials science. Ice, particularly sea ice, is characterized by known anomalies that can be explained by the simultaneous occurrence of solid, liquid and gaseous phases. Even minor temperature fluctuations cause changes in the relationship of these phases and, as a consequence, change the physico-mechanical properties of ice. New hydraulic engineering tasks, associated with the destruction of such a complex material, demand continuous improvement of methods and techniques. The present authors have brought these together in a form which is convenient for a wide range of users. This book covers only local ice destruction, by means other than icebreakers, requiring comparatively low consumption of power in proportion to the volume and mass of destroyed ice. Problems of natural ice destruction under the influence of solar radiation, tidal, wind and wave factors are not dis- cussed. Mechanical and thermal methods were the first of many to be used for ice destruction. Their application has involved a greater num- ber of techniques, so the first two chapters are the longest.
1. Mechanical Destruction of Ice.- 1.1. Perforating and Breaking.- 1.2. Cutting, Milling and Chipping.- 1.3. Drilling.- 1.4. Hydraulic Jet Methods.- 1.5. Explosive Methods.- 1.6. Inventions for Mechanical Destruction of Ice.- 2. Thermal Destruction of Ice.- 2.1. Blackening.- 2.2. Pneumatic and Hydrodynamic Methods.- 2.3. Steam-Water-Air Methods.- 2.4. Gas-Thermal Methods.- 2.5. Electrothermal Methods.- 2.6. Inventions for Thermal Destruction of Ice.- 3. Chemical Destruction of Ice.- 3.1. Inventions for Chemical Destruction of Ice.- 4. Electrophysical Destruction of Ice.- 4.1. Electric Pulse Technique.- 4.2. Electric Hydraulic Technique.- 4.3. Laser Technique.- 4.4. Electromagnetic Field, Radioactive Radiation, Supersonic Waves.- 4.5. Inventions for Electrophysical Destruction of Ice.- 5. Combined Destruction of Ice.- 5.1. Inventions for Combined Destruction of Ice.- References.
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