The international seminar "Material Behavior and Physical Chemistry in Liquid Metal Systems" was organized by the Institute of Materials and Solid State Research of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center (Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany). The seminar was held at the Nuclear Engineering School of the center on March 24-26, 1981. The aim of the seminar was to give metallurgists, chemists,. and physicists working in different areas of the science and technology of liquid metals an opportunity to discuss the basic work and the need for further work in this field. Since the seminar was held near one of the laboratories which for the last few years has been engaged in liquid alkali metal studies, partic- ipants also had an opportunity to observe modern equipment for liquid alkali metal research. Interest in the application of liquid metals as working fluids in energy production, conversion, and storage is increasing. The technology has already demonstrated its high standards, which make possible the operation of large sodium-cooled fast reactors. Past conferences have shown, however, that there is still a lack of basic knowledge and understanding. Therefore, the aim of the present seminar was to discuss basic work in detail, and most of the papers contributed to this objective.
Welcome and Introductory Remarks.- Mass Transfer of Stainless Steel in Pumped Sodium Loops and its Effect on Microstructure.- The Corrosion of Iron in Sodium and the Influence of Alloying Elements on its Mass Transfer Behaviour.- The Deposition Behaviour of Fe, Cr, Ni, Co and Mn in Stainless Steel Sodium Loops.- Corrosion Rate and Down Stream Effect in Liquid Metal Systems.- Austenitic Stainless Steel Alloys with High Nickel Contents in High Temperature Liquid Metal Systems.- Investigation of Impurity Deposition in a Cold Trap of a Sodium Loop.- Experience with Multiple Impurities Detected by Plugging Indicators in Sodium Systems.- Plugging Indicator - Measurement of Low Impurity Concentrations at a Constant Orifice Temperature.- Influence of Lithium on the Structural Stability of Two Austenitic Stainless Steels of the Type 316 and 18 Mn-10 Cr.- Compatibility of Certain Ceramics with Liquid Lithium.- Chemical Aspects of the Corrosion Behaviour of Type 316 Stainless Steel in Liquid Lithium and Liquid Sodium.- Compatibility of High Ni, Fe-Cr Alloys in Li and in Li Containing Traces of LiH.- Corrosion of Refractory Metals in Liquid Lithium.- Deposits of Metallic Impurities in Cracks of Creep-Rupture Specimens of Type 304 SS Tested in Flowing Sodium.- The Fatigue Behaviour of Type 304 SS at 550 DegreesC in Flowing Sodium.- Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue in Sodium of 316 L Stainless Steel.- Influence of Flowing Sodium on the Creep Properties of Ferritic Steel R 8 (EM 12).- Sodium Loops for Material Behaviour Testing in Flowing Sodium in KFK.- Corrosion Product Release into Sodium from Austenitic Stainless Steel.- Corrosion and Mass Transfer in Liquid Sodium as a Function of the Chemical Composition of the Surface of Austenitic Steels and Alloys.- Particular Observations on the Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steels in Sodium Corrosion Loop ML-1.- Compatibility Studies on Stainless Steel Type 347 in Liquid Sodium using a Thermal Convection Loop.- Solubility of Iron in Liquid Lead.- Corrosion of Steels and Refractory Metals in Liquid Lead.- Use of Coatings to Protect Steels against Lead Corrosion at High Temperatures.- Influence of Carbon Species in Sodium on the Methane Equilibrium.- Thermodynamic and Experimental Study of Sodium Hydroxide Decomposition in Sodium between 430 and 550 Degrees.- The Equilibrium Hydrogen Pressure-Temperature Diagram for the Liquid Sodium-Hydrogen-Oxygen System.- Impurity Monitoring in Liquid Sodium Systems by Electrochemical Oxygen and Hydrogen Monitors.- Analysis of Non-Metals in Sodium: Experience at the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam.- Carbon in Sodium Measurements with Various Carbon Meters.- Analysis of Trace Metals in Sodium by Flameless Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.- The Kinetics of Hydrogen Removal from Liquid Sodium.- A Thermodynamic Assessment of the Behavior of Cesium and Rubidium in Reactor Fuel Elements.- Thermochemistry in the Systems Na-O-C, Na-Al-O-C and Na-C-N with Respect to Interactions of Oxygen, Carbon and Nitrogen in Sodium.- Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of Oxygen - Hydrogen Interactions in Liquid Sodium.- The Reactions of Oxygen and Hydrogen with Liquid Sodium - a Critical Survey.- Investigation Methods for the Determination of Thermodynamic Properties of Lithium Alloys.- Determination of the Formation Enthalpies of Sodium Alloys of Lithium with In, Tl, Sn, Pb and Bi.- Physical Measurements on Liquid Lithium Alloys.- Solubility of Manganese and Iron in Sodium.- The Solubility of Transition Metals, Mh and Co in Liquid Sodium.- Chemical Reactions in Liquid Sodium and Liquid Lithium.- Thermodynamic Potential of Nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen in Liquid Lithium and Sodium.- Solubilities of Non-Metals in Liquid Lithium - A Review.- The Stability of Metal Particles and Particle-Plate Interactions in Liquid Metals.- The Influence of High Temperature Sodium, Vacuum and Argon Environments on AISI 316 Stainless Steel Bolted Assemblies.- Corrosion of Austenitic Steel in Sodium Loops.- Preliminary Observations of the Strain-Induced Corrosion of Alloy-800 in Sodium Hydroxide-Saturated Sodium and on its Evolution in Dynamic Purified Sodium.- Discussion of Sodium Corrosion and Mass Transfer.- Nitrogen Transfer in Austenitic Sodium Heat Transport Systems.- Some Observations on the Carburisation of Type 316 Stainless Steel Foil in a Low Carbon Activity Sodium Environment.- Studies on the Carburisation of an AISI Type 316 Stainless Steel in Liquid Sodium.- Caburization Kinetics of Alloy-800 in Liquid Sodium at 550 DegreesC.- Modelling for the Carburization of the Alloy - 800 in Liquid Sodium.- Closing Seminar.
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