Community mental health and behavioral-ecology : a handbook of theory, research, and practice


Community mental health and behavioral-ecology : a handbook of theory, research, and practice

edited by Abraham M. Jeger and Robert S. Slotnick

Plenum Press, c1982

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 18



Includes bibliographies and indexes



This volume is addressed to professionals and students in community mental health-including researchers, clinicians, administrators, educa- tors, and students in relevant specialities within the fields of psychology, psychiatry, social work, public health, and nursing. The intent of this book is to serve as a practical resource for professionals and also as a di- dactic text for students. In addition,*the volume seeks to make a theoret- ical contribution to the field by presenting, for the first time in book form, a behavioral-ecological perspective in community mental health. We present behavioral-ecology as an emerging perspective that is concerned with the interdependence of people, behavior, and their sociophysical environments. Behavioral-ecology attributes mental health problems to transactions between persons and their settings, rather than to causes rooted exclusively within individuals or environments. In this vol- ume we advance the notion of behavioral-ecology as an integration of two broad perspectives--behauioral approaches as derived from the indi- vidual psychology of learning, and ecological approaches as encompassing the study of communities, environments, and social systems. Through the programs brought together in this book we are arguing for a merging of these two areas for purposes of advancing theory, research, and prac- tice in community mental health.


I. Behavioral-Ecology: Conceptualization, Values, and Knowledge Bases.- References.- 1 Community Mental Health: Toward a Behavioral-Ecological Perspective.- Behavioral-Ecology: An Emerging Perspective.- General Features of the Behavioral-Ecological Perspective.- Values of the Behavioral-Ecological Perspective.- Guidelines for Community Mental Health Practice.- Summary.- The Community Mental Health Movement: An Overview.- Historical Evolution.- Limitations of Community Mental Health: Problems of Implementation.- Conclusion.- References.- 2 Guiding Values of Behavioral-Ecological Interventions: The Merging of Ethics and Practice.- Promoting Individual Competence.- Enhancing the Psychological Sense of Community.- Fostering the Competent Community.- Supporting Cultural Diversity.- Strengthening Mediating Structures.- Conclusion.- References.- 3 Streams of Behavioral-Ecology: A Knowledge Base for Community Mental Health Practice.- Behavioral Community Technology.- Behavior Modification: An Overview.- Applications of Behavioral Community Technology.- Conclusion.- Bioecological Analogies.- Conceptualization and Principles.- Applications.- Conclusion.- Environment-and-Behavior Field.- Ecological Psychology.- Environmental Psychology.- A Synthesis: Human-Environment Optimization.- Networks and Social Support.- Individual Social Networks.- Interorganizational Resource Exchange Networks.- Synthesis: Toward a Merging of Streams.- Examples of Syntheses.- Behavioral-Ecological Research Paradigms.- Future Directions.- References.- II. Community Alternatives to Instttutionalization.- References.- 4 The Behavioral Analysis and Modification Project for Community Mental Health: From Conception to Dissemination.- Behavior Analysis and Therapy at the Oxnard CMHC: The First 5 Years.- Staff Training.- Behavioral Goal Setting.- Day Hospital Programs.- Outpatient Programs.- Consultation and Education Programs.- Conclusions.- Dissemination of Behavioral Analysis and Therapy: The Next 4 Years.- Development of Selection and Entry Procedures.- On-Site Training and Consultation.- Systematic Inservice Training.- Adoption of Disseminated Innovations.- Acquisition of Knowledge in Behavioral Analysis and Therapy.- Conclusions.- Summary.- Referencesll.- 5 Innovation and Diffusion in Mental Health: The Community Lodge.- A Conceptual Overview.- Individuals and Innovations: An Overworked 50% of the Variance.- Incentives: A Neglected% of the Variance 116.- Organizational Change Processes: An Important 25% of the Variance.- Disseminating the Community Lodge.- Development of the Model Innovation.- The First Dissemination Experiment.- The Current Dissemination Experiment.- The Megastructure of Dissemination.- References.- 6 Integrating Skill Building and Peer Support in Mental Health Treatment: The Early Intervention and Community Network Development Projects.- A Behavioral-Ecological Conceptualization of Adjustment.- The Early Intervention Project: Skill Building and Behavioral Management in a Short-Term Residential Setting.- Program Description.- Evaluation.- Community Network Development.- Composition and Organization.- Staffing Pattern and Roles.- Activities and Projects.- Evaluation.- Conclusions.- References.- III. Consultation As Indirect Service.- References.- 7 Behavioral-Ecological Consultation to Day Care Centers.- Use of Behavior Modification in Day Care.- Importance of the Day Care Environment.- Engagement of Children with Their Environment.- Arranging the Environment for Engagement.- The Physical Environment.- Activity Schedules, Area Assignments, and Individual Movement of Children.- Conclusion.- References.- 8 A Multienvironment School Mental Health Consultation: Behavioral Skill Training for Teachers and Parents.- The Present Project.- Multienvironment Consultation.- Evaluation.- Discussion.- Problems of Entry and Implementation.- Conclusion.- References.- 9 Measures of Staff Morale and Organizational Environment as Indicators of Program Change in an Institution for Youthful Offenders.- Project Description.- Assessment Procedures and Results.- Job Descriptive Index and Absenteeism.- Job Design Inventory.- Social Climate.- Discussion.- References.- 10 Consultation for Self-Evaluation: Social Climate Assessment as a Catalyst for Programmatic Change in Mental Health Treatment Environments.- Social Climate Assessment as a Catalyst for Change: An Overview of the Literature.- The Present Study: Case Applications.- Measures and Procedure.- Findings and Discussion.- References.- IV. Prevention as Community Enhancement.- References.- 11 A Multilevel Behavioral-Preventive School Program: Process, Problems, and Potential.- A Multilevel Behavioral-Preventive School Program.- The Program and Its Goals.- Entry into the System.- Building a Consultation Team.- The Trilevel Intervention.- Building an Evaluation Component into Community Programs.- An Ecological Evaluation of the Multilevel Tolland Project.- References.- 12 Prevention of Cultural-Familial Mental Retardation.- The Present Study.- Family Rehabilitation Program.- Assessment of Intervention.- Discussion.- References.- 13 Behavioral and Community Interventions during Transition to Parenthood.- Parenthood as a Crisis or Transition.- Behavioral Parent Training.- Behavioral Training before Childbirth.- Program Description.- Evaluation.- Support Groups for New Mothers.- Program Description.- Evaluation.- Conclusion.- References.- 14 Media and Community Organization for Prevention Programs.- Effects of Mass Media: Overview of the Literature.- Community Intervention.- Successful Media and Community Interventions.- Stanford Three-Community Study.- North Karelia Study.- United States-Finland Collaborative Study.- Conclusion.- References.- V. Social Support Networks.- References.- 15 Behavioral-Ecology and Self-Help/Professional Collaboration.- The Self-Help Movement: An Overview.- The Self-Help/Professional Collaborative Perspective.- Contributions from Behavioral-Ecology.- Information/Referral.- Consultation and Education.- Self-Help Group Development.- Natural Helping Network Enhancement.- Research.- Conclusion.- References.- 16 Designing Behavioral Technologies with Community Self-Help Organizations.- Examples of Community Technology Building.- Case 1: Designing Methods to Teach Helping Skills to Low-Income Community Residents.- Case 2: Designing an Open Learning Center for Adult Learners.- Case 3: Developing an Information/Referral System for County Agencies.- Case 4: Training Indigenous Staff of a Neighborhood Service Center in Nonprofessional Counseling and Problem-Solving Skills.- Case 5: Designing a Community Faculty Program for County Residents.- Case 6: Designing a Community Skills Exchange Program.- Case 7: Developing a Speakers Bureau Program for Community Organizations.- Case 8: Designing a Technology for Informing Community Residents about the Possible Consequences of Proposed Roadway Projects.- Case 9: Training Community Members to Chair Group Meetings.- Discussion.- References.- 17 The Neighborhood and Family Services Project: An Empowerment Model Linking Clergy, Agency Professionals, and Community Residents.- The Neighborhood and Family Services Project.- Community Mental Health Empowerment Model.- Project Description.- Role of the Clergy in Mental Health: An Overview.- Linking Clergy, Community, and Professional Helping Networks.- Conclusion.- References.- 18 The Social Ecology of Natural Supports.- Overview of the Literature.- The Nature of Social Networks.- Community and Social Networks.- Social Networks in Single-Resident Occupancy Hotels.- The Initial Study.- The Second Study.- Networks as a Resource.- References.- VI. Evaluation And Community Accountability.- References.- 19 Evaluating a Behavioral Community Mental Health Center.- Implementation of the Project.- Training of Staff.- Implementation of Applied Learning Interventions in All Services.- Procedures for Evaluation of Effectiveness.- Outcomes.- Conclusions.- References.- 20 The Multiphasic Environmental Assessment Procedure: A Method for Comprehensively Evaluating Sheltered Care Settings.- The Multiphasic Environmental Assessment Procedure.- Physical and Architectural Resources.- Policy and Program Resources.- Resident and Staff Resources.- Social-Environmental Resources.- Comparing Sheltered Care Settings.- Exploring Environmental Domains and Their Impacts.- Environmental Choice and Control.- The Determinants of Social Climate.- Practical Utility of the MEAP.- Conclusion.- References.- 21 Assessing Citizen Participation in a Community Mental Health Center.- Background.- The Content of the Study.- Literature Review and Framework.- Results of the Study.- The Research Process Can Be Informative.- Our Role.- Entry and a Systems Perspective.- Turnover and Utilization of Information.- Conclusion.- References.- 22 An Experimental Evaluation and Process Analysis of a Behavioral Consultation Program.- Overview of the Project.- Participants.- Assessment Procedures.- Consultees.- Clients.- The Behavioral Consultation Program.- Procedure.- Experimental Evaluation.- Changes in Consultees.- Changes in Clients.- Changes in Social Environment.- Discussion.- Process Analysis.- Effects of the System on the Program.- Effects of the Program on the System.- Conclusion.- References.- 23 A Structural Framework for Conceptualizing Ethical Issues in Behavioral-Ecological Practice.- Derivation of Ethical Principles.- Promoting Mental Health.- Alternative Strategies for Promoting Mental Health.- A Framework for Ethical Issues in Mental Health.- Ethical Issues: The Demand Side.- Ethical Issues: The Supply Side.- Ethical Issues: Quality of Care.- Conclusion.- References.- VII. Mental Health Personpower: Education and Training.- References.- 24 Educating Professionals for Social Systems Intervention: A 10-Year Retrospective.- The Experimental Social Innovator.- Experimentalist/Researcher.- The Interventionist.- Social Systems Change.- Issues of Intellectual Content.- Interdisciplinary Focus: Methodology and Content.- People-Changing and Management Skills.- Issues of Socialization.- Clear Expectations and Clear Rewards.- Opportunities for Group Maintenance.- Faculty Training Role.- Student-Faculty Relationships: Some Examples.- Institutional Impediments to Innovative Training.- Resource Misallocations.- Premature and Inappropriate Professionalism.- How New Is the New?.- Summary.- References.- 25 Training Programs for Paraprofessionals: Guidelines and Issues.- Overview of the Paraprofessional Movement.- Preliminaries to Training.- Training Paraprofessionals: Guidelines.- Preservice and Inservice.- Supervision.- College-Level Training.- Training Professionals to Work with Paraprofessionals.- Training Paraprofessionals: Issues.- Career Ladders.- Indigenous Workers.- Dangers of Co-Optation.- References.- 26 Endorsement of a Community Mental Health Ideology: A Guide for Inservice Staff Training.- Overview of the Literature.- The Present Study.- Setting.- Participants.- Procedure.- Findings.- Discussion.- References.- VIII. Epilogue: Where Do We Go From Here?.- 27 From Community Mental Health Centers to Community Resource Centers.- Proposed Program Components.- Proposed Organizational Structure.- Intracenter Linkages.- Center-Community Linkages.- Community Participation.- Summary and Conclusion.- References.- Appendix Resources in Community Mental Health and Behavioral-Ecology.- Author Index.

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