Community mental health and behavioral-ecology : a handbook of theory, research, and practice


Community mental health and behavioral-ecology : a handbook of theory, research, and practice

edited by Abraham M. Jeger and Robert S. Slotnick

Plenum Press, c1982

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 17



Includes bibliographies and indexes



This volume is addressed to professionals and students in community mental health-including researchers, clinicians, administrators, educa tors, and students in relevant specialities within the fields of psychology, psychiatry, social work, public health, and nursing. The intent of this book is to serve as a practical resource for professionals and also as a di dactic text for students. In addition,*the volume seeks to make a theoret ical contribution to the field by presenting, for the first time in book form, a behavioral-ecological perspective in community mental health. We present behavioral-ecology as an emerging perspective that is concerned with the interdependence of people, behavior, and their sociophysical environments. Behavioral-ecology attributes mental health problems to transactions between persons and their settings, rather than to causes rooted exclusively within individuals or environments. In this vol ume we advance the notion of behavioral-ecology as an integration of two broad perspectives--behauioral approaches as derived from the indi vidual psychology of learning, and ecological approaches as encompassing the study of communities, environments, and social systems. Through the programs brought together in this book we are arguing for a merging of these two areas for purposes of advancing theory, research, and prac tice in community mental health.


I. Behavioral-Ecology: Conceptualization, Values, and Knowledge Bases.- References.- 1 Community Mental Health: Toward a Behavioral-Ecological Perspective.- Behavioral-Ecology: An Emerging Perspective.- General Features of the Behavioral-Ecological Perspective.- Values of the Behavioral-Ecological Perspective.- Guidelines for Community Mental Health Practice.- Summary.- The Community Mental Health Movement: An Overview.- Historical Evolution.- Limitations of Community Mental Health: Problems of Implementation.- Conclusion.- References.- 2 Guiding Values of Behavioral-Ecological Interventions: The Merging of Ethics and Practice.- Promoting Individual Competence.- Enhancing the Psychological Sense of Community.- Fostering the Competent Community.- Supporting Cultural Diversity.- Strengthening Mediating Structures.- Conclusion.- References.- 3 Streams of Behavioral-Ecology: A Knowledge Base for Community Mental Health Practice.- Behavioral Community Technology.- Behavior Modification: An Overview.- Applications of Behavioral Community Technology.- Conclusion.- Bioecological Analogies.- Conceptualization and Principles.- Applications.- Conclusion.- Environment-and-Behavior Field.- Ecological Psychology.- Environmental Psychology.- A Synthesis: Human-Environment Optimization.- Networks and Social Support.- Individual Social Networks.- Interorganizational Resource Exchange Networks.- Synthesis: Toward a Merging of Streams.- Examples of Syntheses.- Behavioral-Ecological Research Paradigms.- Future Directions.- References.- II. Community Alternatives to Instttutionalization.- References.- 4 The Behavioral Analysis and Modification Project for Community Mental Health: From Conception to Dissemination.- Behavior Analysis and Therapy at the Oxnard CMHC: The First 5 Years.- Staff Training.- Behavioral Goal Setting.- Day Hospital Programs.- Outpatient Programs.- Consultation and Education Programs.- Conclusions.- Dissemination of Behavioral Analysis and Therapy: The Next 4 Years.- Development of Selection and Entry Procedures.- On-Site Training and Consultation.- Systematic Inservice Training.- Adoption of Disseminated Innovations.- Acquisition of Knowledge in Behavioral Analysis and Therapy.- Conclusions.- Summary.- Referencesll.- 5 Innovation and Diffusion in Mental Health: The Community Lodge.- A Conceptual Overview.- Individuals and Innovations: An Overworked 50% of the Variance.- Incentives: A Neglected% of the Variance 116.- Organizational Change Processes: An Important 25% of the Variance.- Disseminating the Community Lodge.- Development of the Model Innovation.- The First Dissemination Experiment.- The Current Dissemination Experiment.- The Megastructure of Dissemination.- References.- 6 Integrating Skill Building and Peer Support in Mental Health Treatment: The Early Intervention and Community Network Development Projects.- A Behavioral-Ecological Conceptualization of Adjustment.- The Early Intervention Project: Skill Building and Behavioral Management in a Short-Term Residential Setting.- Program Description.- Evaluation.- Community Network Development.- Composition and Organization.- Staffing Pattern and Roles.- Activities and Projects.- Evaluation.- Conclusions.- References.- III. Consultation As Indirect Service.- References.- 7 Behavioral-Ecological Consultation to Day Care Centers.- Use of Behavior Modification in Day Care.- Importance of the Day Care Environment.- Engagement of Children with Their Environment.- Arranging the Environment for Engagement.- The Physical Environment.- Activity Schedules, Area Assignments, and Individual Movement of Children.- Conclusion.- References.- 8 A Multienvironment School Mental Health Consultation: Behavioral Skill Training for Teachers and Parents.- The Present Project.- Multienvironment Consultation.- Evaluation.- Discussion.- Problems of Entry and Implementation.- Conclusion.- References.- 9 Measures of Staff Morale and Organizational Environment as Indicators of Program Change in an Institution for Youthful Offenders.- Project Description.- Assessment Procedures and Results.- Job Descriptive Index and Absenteeism.- Job Design Inventory.- Social Climate.- Discussion.- References.- 10 Consultation for Self-Evaluation: Social Climate Assessment as a Catalyst for Programmatic Change in Mental Health Treatment Environments.- Social Climate Assessment as a Catalyst for Change: An Overview of the Literature.- The Present Study: Case Applications.- Measures and Procedure.- Findings and Discussion.- References.- IV. Prevention as Community Enhancement.- References.- 11 A Multilevel Behavioral-Preventive School Program: Process, Problems, and Potential.- A Multilevel Behavioral-Preventive School Program.- The Program and Its Goals.- Entry into the System.- Building a Consultation Team.- The Trilevel Intervention.- Building an Evaluation Component into Community Programs.- An Ecological Evaluation of the Multilevel Tolland Project.- References.- 12 Prevention of Cultural-Familial Mental Retardation.- The Present Study.- Family Rehabilitation Program.- Assessment of Intervention.- Discussion.- References.- 13 Behavioral and Community Interventions during Transition to Parenthood.- Parenthood as a Crisis or Transition.- Behavioral Parent Training.- Behavioral Training before Childbirth.- Program Description.- Evaluation.- Support Groups for New Mothers.- Program Description.- Evaluation.- Conclusion.- References.- 14 Media and Community Organization for Prevention Programs.- Effects of Mass Media: Overview of the Literature.- Community Intervention.- Successful Media and Community Interventions.- Stanford Three-Community Study.- North Karelia Study.- United States-Finland Collaborative Study.- Conclusion.- References.- V. Social Support Networks.- References.- 15 Behavioral-Ecology and Self-Help/Professional Collaboration.- The Self-Help Movement: An Overview.- The Self-Help/Professional Collaborative Perspective.- Contributions from Behavioral-Ecology.- Information/Referral.- Consultation and Education.- Self-Help Group Development.- Natural Helping Network Enhancement.- Research.- Conclusion.- References.- 16 Designing Behavioral Technologies with Community Self-Help Organizations.- Examples of Community Technology Building.- Case 1: Designing Methods to Teach Helping Skills to Low-Income Community Residents.- Case 2: Designing an Open Learning Center for Adult Learners.- Case 3: Developing an Information/Referral System for County Agencies.- Case 4: Training Indigenous Staff of a Neighborhood Service Center in Nonprofessional Counseling and Problem-Solving Skills.- Case 5: Designing a Community Faculty Program for County Residents.- Case 6: Designing a Community Skills Exchange Program.- Case 7: Developing a Speakers Bureau Program for Community Organizations.- Case 8: Designing a Technology for Informing Community Residents about the Possible Consequences of Proposed Roadway Projects.- Case 9: Training Community Members to Chair Group Meetings.- Discussion.- References.- 17 The Neighborhood and Family Services Project: An Empowerment Model Linking Clergy, Agency Professionals, and Community Residents.- The Neighborhood and Family Services Project.- Community Mental Health Empowerment Model.- Project Description.- Role of the Clergy in Mental Health: An Overview.- Linking Clergy, Community, and Professional Helping Networks.- Conclusion.- References.- 18 The Social Ecology of Natural Supports.- Overview of the Literature.- The Nature of Social Networks.- Community and Social Networks.- Social Networks in Single-Resident Occupancy Hotels.- The Initial Study.- The Second Study.- Networks as a Resource.- References.- VI. Evaluation And Community Accountability.- References.- 19 Evaluating a Behavioral Community Mental Health Center.- Implementation of the Project.- Training of Staff.- Implementation of Applied Learning Interventions in All Services.- Procedures for Evaluation of Effectiveness.- Outcomes.- Conclusions.- References.- 20 The Multiphasic Environmental Assessment Procedure: A Method for Comprehensively Evaluating Sheltered Care Settings.- The Multiphasic Environmental Assessment Procedure.- Physical and Architectural Resources.- Policy and Program Resources.- Resident and Staff Resources.- Social-Environmental Resources.- Comparing Sheltered Care Settings.- Exploring Environmental Domains and Their Impacts.- Environmental Choice and Control.- The Determinants of Social Climate.- Practical Utility of the MEAP.- Conclusion.- References.- 21 Assessing Citizen Participation in a Community Mental Health Center.- Background.- The Content of the Study.- Literature Review and Framework.- Results of the Study.- The Research Process Can Be Informative.- Our Role.- Entry and a Systems Perspective.- Turnover and Utilization of Information.- Conclusion.- References.- 22 An Experimental Evaluation and Process Analysis of a Behavioral Consultation Program.- Overview of the Project.- Participants.- Assessment Procedures.- Consultees.- Clients.- The Behavioral Consultation Program.- Procedure.- Experimental Evaluation.- Changes in Consultees.- Changes in Clients.- Changes in Social Environment.- Discussion.- Process Analysis.- Effects of the System on the Program.- Effects of the Program on the System.- Conclusion.- References.- 23 A Structural Framework for Conceptualizing Ethical Issues in Behavioral-Ecological Practice.- Derivation of Ethical Principles.- Promoting Mental Health.- Alternative Strategies for Promoting Mental Health.- A Framework for Ethical Issues in Mental Health.- Ethical Issues: The Demand Side.- Ethical Issues: The Supply Side.- Ethical Issues: Quality of Care.- Conclusion.- References.- VII. Mental Health Personpower: Education and Training.- References.- 24 Educating Professionals for Social Systems Intervention: A 10-Year Retrospective.- The Experimental Social Innovator.- Experimentalist/Researcher.- The Interventionist.- Social Systems Change.- Issues of Intellectual Content.- Interdisciplinary Focus: Methodology and Content.- People-Changing and Management Skills.- Issues of Socialization.- Clear Expectations and Clear Rewards.- Opportunities for Group Maintenance.- Faculty Training Role.- Student-Faculty Relationships: Some Examples.- Institutional Impediments to Innovative Training.- Resource Misallocations.- Premature and Inappropriate Professionalism.- How New Is the New?.- Summary.- References.- 25 Training Programs for Paraprofessionals: Guidelines and Issues.- Overview of the Paraprofessional Movement.- Preliminaries to Training.- Training Paraprofessionals: Guidelines.- Preservice and Inservice.- Supervision.- College-Level Training.- Training Professionals to Work with Paraprofessionals.- Training Paraprofessionals: Issues.- Career Ladders.- Indigenous Workers.- Dangers of Co-Optation.- References.- 26 Endorsement of a Community Mental Health Ideology: A Guide for Inservice Staff Training.- Overview of the Literature.- The Present Study.- Setting.- Participants.- Procedure.- Findings.- Discussion.- References.- VIII. Epilogue: Where Do We Go From Here?.- 27 From Community Mental Health Centers to Community Resource Centers.- Proposed Program Components.- Proposed Organizational Structure.- Intracenter Linkages.- Center-Community Linkages.- Community Participation.- Summary and Conclusion.- References.- Appendix Resources in Community Mental Health and Behavioral-Ecology.- Author Index.

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