The 4th International Symposium on Science and Technology ofSintering was held on 4-6 November 1987, in Tokyo, under the auspices of the organising committee, the International Institute for the Science ofSintering and Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun Ltd. The first meeting was held in Yugoslavia in 1975, the second was in Poland in 1979 and the third was in India in 1983. The fourth was in Tokyo in 1987. Participants numbered about 500, including 100 from abroad. These came from USA, France, FRG, China, Australia, Korea, Sweden, Yugoslavia, GDR, India, Czechoslovakia, Brazil, Italy, Spain, Canada, Taiwan, etc. We had many good presentations and discussions during the meeting and were informed about the present status of the science and technology of sintering. Understanding and mutual human relations were promoted by this meeting. The meeting was a success and these proceedings will promote the science and technology of sintering. SHIGEYUKI SOMIY A MASAHIKO SHIMADA MASAHINO YOSHIMURA Ryuzo WATANABE X11I CONTENTS vii Organizers and Co-Sponsors VB Advisory and Organizing Committee.
Volume 1.- International Institute for the Science of Sintering-The Community of the World's Scientist and the Foundation of Sintering Future.- Chemical Synthesis and Sol-Gel Processing.- The Powder Preparation of La2Ti2O7 and La4Ti9O24 Using Amorphous Complex Colloid and the Sintering Behaviour of the Synthesized Powders.- Preparation and Properties of Monodispersed Ceramic Powders.- Occurrence of Priderite in the K2O-A12O3-Ti02 System.- Preparation and Electrical Conductivity of Polycrystalline M + -/??-Ferrites (M+:K+, Rb+ and Cs+) with /??-Alumina Structure.- Synthesis and Sintering of Platelike CaO-Stabilized ZrO2 Crystals.- Calcination and Two-Stage Sintering of Coprecipitated PLZT Powder Aged in Nitrate Solution.- Preparation and Thermoelectric Properties of Sintered Boron Phosphide.- Preparation of Silicon Carbide Powders by Chemical Vapor Deposition.- Growth of SiC Whiskers from SiC Particles.- Preparation and Characterization of Ceramic Powders from Organometallic Polymers.- Synthesis of Beta-SiC Powder from Ethylsilicate-Phenolic Resin.- Pure A1N Prepared by Fluidized Nitridation Technique.- The Formation Process of High Purity and Sinterable Magnesia Powder From MgCl2. 6H2O-added Mg(OH)2.- Simultaneous Grain Growth of CaO and MgO Phases During Sintering of Two Phase Mixtures.- Behaviour of Ti and/or A1 Added Ni Fine Particles during the Hydrogenation of Carbon Monoxide.- Conversion Process of Gel Fibers Prepared from Zr(O*nC3H7)4 by Sol-Gel Method to ZrO2 Fibers.- Application of Electron Beam Irradiation for Preparation of SiC Fiber from Polycarbosilane.- Preparation of BaTi03 and LiNb03 Powders by Hydrothermal Anodic Oxidation.- Production of High Purity Alumina from Acidic Waste Solution of Aluminum Etching Process.- Sintering Behavior of Alkoxy-Derived Mullite Compacts.- Size Control of Zr02-Aggregated Particles Produced by Hydrolysis and Application to Ceramics.- Sinterability of Sol-Gel Derived Monolithic Oxide Precursor Gels.- Study of the Sol-Gel Process of Alumina Using Iso-Propoxide.- Properties and Sintering of Gels Derived From Metal Alkoxide.- Nucleation and Aggregation as a Mechanism for the Formation of Monodisperse Silica Spheres.- Synthesis of Crystalline Ba(Zn1/3Ta2/3)O3 Powder by Hydrolysis of Metal- Alkoxides.- Preparation and Sintering of Fine Powders of Alkoxide-Derived Zinc Oxide.- Epitaxial Effect of Seeding on Crystallization and Densification of Diphasic Al2O3-MgO Xerogels.- Advance Synthetic Powder Atomization.- Rapidly Solidified Crystalline and Amorphous Powders-Problems and Perspectives.- Rapidly Solidified Powder Produced by Counterrotating Process.- Fundamental Studies of a New Atomization Process and Properties of the Powders.- Production of Rapidly Solidified Powders by the Rotating-Water- Atomization Process.- Development of Elevated Temperature P/M Aluminum Alloy by Rapid Solidification Processing.- Formation and Consolidation of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-Cu Amorphous Powders.- Status and Trends in the Production of Clean Metal Powder.- Forming and Compaction.- The Slip Line Method of Sintered Powder Materials Under Condition of Axial Symmetry.- Selection of Carboxylates as Dispersant for Alumina in Slip Casting.- Metal Injection Molding-a Progressive Shaping Process Requires Sophisticated Sintering Techniques.- Characterization of CIP Formed Powder Compacts.- Sintering, Fundamental and Microstructure.- Excess Energy Stored in Fine Particle System and Material Transport by Diffusion as its Relaxation Process.- Sintering of NaCl Powders.- Pressure-Sintering of Ultrafine Metal Powders.- Sintering of Plated Iron Powders.- Solid-State Sintering as a High Temperature Deformation Process.- Variables Controlling Sinterability of Oxide Ceramics.- Interface Migration During Sintering Induced by Coherency Strain.- Packing of Planer Particles.- A Critical Assessment of Computer Simulation and Numerical Modelling in Sintering Studies.- Impurity Diffusion and the Effect of the Dissolution of Impurities on Diffusivities of Constituent Ions in ?-Al2O3.- Some Contributions of Electron Theory of Sintering in Real Systems.- High Temperature Vaporization from Lithium Silicate.- Control Over ?-Dicalcium Silicate and Discussion on Its Phase Transformation Mechanism.- Determination of Complete Orientation Distribution Function in Hexagonal Metal by The Zero-Range Method with Optimal Zero-Range.- New Understanding of Densification Process.- Re-Examination of the Intermediate and Final Stages of Sintering Controlled by Diffusion.- Sintering and Grain Growth in Tetragonal and Cubic Zirconia.- Sintering of Aggregated MgO Powders.- Grain Boundary Energy In Mgo Bicrystals.- Sintering of Narrow Size Distribution Alumina.- A Novel Firing Concept to Ceramics Sintering.- Effect of Al2TiO5 Decomposition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of TiO2-added Alumina Ceramics.- Influence Of Additives On Discontinuous Grain Growth During Liquid Phase Sintering Of Barium Titanate.- Sintering of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet.- Anisotropy in the Dimensional Change of Metal Powder Compacts During Sintering.- Texture and Its Control in Carbons.- Structure Parameters for Gas Transport Through Metallurgical Sintered Materials in the Course of Reactions.- The Relation between Sinterability and Initial Packing Density in the Loosely Sintered Cu-Sphere Compact.- Fabrication, Forming, and Firing of Thoria and Thoria-Urania Fuel Pellets.- Fabrication and Characterization of Sintered SYNROC Crystalline Ceramics.- In Situ Experiments of Sintering Process by High Voltage Electron Microscopy.- Oxide-Oxide Interfaces: HREM Observations and Modelling.- In-Situ Analysis of Sintering Reactions of Iron Ore Fine's by a 'Dynamic Sem'.- Structure of Alumina/Niobium Diffusion-Bonded Interface.- High-Resolution Electron Microscope Study on Crystal Structure of Interlayer in Sintered Fe/FeO Compact.- Sintering of ZrC-Al2O3 Composites.- Liquid Phase Sintering.- An Update on the Theory of Liquid Phase Sintering.- Mechanism of Liquid Phase Sintering in Fe-Cu, Cu-Ag and High Speed Steel.- Effect of Entrapped and External Gas Pressure on Densification during Liquid Phase Sintering.- Effect of Binder Composition on Sintering of Tungsten Based Heavy Alloys.- Special Sintering of Tungsten and Tungsten Carbide by Using a Ni-P Alloy.- The Sintering of Nd-Fe-B Magnets.- Sintering of Zircon in the Presence of Liquid Phase.- Novel Sintering Techniques.- Plasma Sintering of Ceramics.- Plasma Sintering.- Potentiality of High Pressure Combustion Sintering to Produce Ceramic Based Multi-Phase Components.- Self Propagating Reaction Sintering of TiNi Alloy.- Application of Synthesis Process by a Self-Propagating Reaction.- Reactivity of Powders During the Combustion Synthesis of Metallic and Ceramic Phases.- The Key Point of Shock Processing for Advanced Materials.- Preparation of Diamond Sintered Compact by Reaction Sintering.- Synthesis of Sintered Diamond with High Hardness and its Properties.- Reaction Analysis of the Combustion Synthesis of Transition Metal Nitrides.- Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis of Intermetallic Compounds.- The Structure and Properties of Metals Sintered by the Method of Electric Contact Heating.- Isodynamic Compaction of Titanium Powder.- The Behaviour of Rapidly Solidified Steel Powders under the Action of Shock Wave.- P/M Nonferrous Alloy and Steel.- Dynamic Pre-Heating of P/M Al-Si-X Alloy Prior to Hot Forming.- Creep Behaviour of Dispersion-Hardened A1-4% Mg Alloy by Mechanical Alloying.- High Performance P/M A1 Alloys.- Effect of Heat Treatment on the Sintered Ti-Fe Alloys.- Processing and Characteristics of P/M-Shape Memory Alloys.- Superplastic Forming of Zn-Al Pre-Alloy Powder.- Rapidly-Quenched Intermetallic Compounds, TiAl and Al3Ti.- Preparation and Properties of Dispersion Strengthened Cu-A12O3Powder Using Al-alkoxide.- Mechanical Alloying of Ni-base Superalloy.- Fabrication of Solid State Amorphized Metallic Powders by Mechanical Alloying.- Fabrication Technologies and Properties of P/M Superalloys and Ti Alloys.- High-Field Superconductivity of Si-(Pb, Bi) Alloys Prepared by Mechanical Alloying of Elemental Powders.- Vacuum Hot Pressing of the Iron-Base High Alloyed Powders.- Preparation of Particle-Dispersion-Strengthened Copper by the Application of Mechanical Alloying.- Trends in Advanced P/M Alloys.- Properties of High Iron Carbon Powders.- Influence of Molybdenum on Properties and Microstructure of Sintered Alloyed Steels.- Effect of Dispersion and Coating of Rare Earth Oxide Particles on the Oxidation of Sintered Heat Resisting Alloys.- Corrosion Test Methods Study for P/M Austenitic Stainless Steels.- New Amorphous Cu-V-(Si, OR Ge) Alloys Prepared by Mechanical Alloying of Elemental Powders.- Mechanical Properties of ODS Thin Sheet from Mechanically Alloyed Cu-Al2O3 Powder.- Characteristics of Composite-Type Alloy Steel Powders Containing Ni, Cu and Mo.- Lower Temperature Sintering of Iron-Tin-Copper Compact.- Sintering of 434L Ferritic Stainless Steel-A12O3 Particulate Composites.- Mechanical Properties and Densification Mechanism of a High Strength Sintered Steel.- HIPing.- Hot Isostatic Pressing of Metallic and Ceramic Powders.- Analysis of Hot Isostatic Pressing-Alumina as a Model Material.- Microstructural Development During Sintering and HIPing of some Multicomponent Systems.- Numerical Simulation of the Densification Behaviour of Metal Powder During Hot Isostatic Pressing.- Sintering in Isostatically Hot Pressed Materials.- Recent Progress in CIP and HIP Systems.- HIP Technology at Nippon Kokan.- Sinter-HIP Furnaces-Sintering and Compacting in a Combined Cycle.- Corrosion- & Wear-Resistant Bimetallic Cylinder for Injection Molding Produced by the HIP Process.- HIP of Zn2TiO4 Prepared by Coprecipitation Method.- HIP of Sn02.- Testing and Evaluation.- R-Curve Behavior of Ceramic Materials.- Flaw-Size and Flaw-Orientation Distributions of Structural Ceramics.- Proof Testing by Thermal Shock.- Deformation Mechanisms in Various Forms of SiC and the Implications of these Results Regarding Densification in ?-containing Materials.- Characterization of Creep in the Pressureless Sintered Alumina, Chromia-Alumina and Molybdenum-Alumina.- Creep and Creep Cavitation in Polycrystalline MgO: Effect of Intergranular Second Phase.- Strength and Thermal Conductivity of Highly Porous Sintered Compacts.- Acoustic Emissions from Whisker Reinforced Glass Composites with Special Reference to Microcracking.- Ultrasonic Spectroscopic Analysis for Pore Structure in Cu-Sintered Compact.- Ultrasonic Evaluation of Pore Fraction and Mean Grain Diameter in Fe and Fe-Cu Sintered Compacts.- Thermal Expansion of Cordierite Ceramics-Effects of Doping with Alkali and Heat Treatments.- Evaluation of Impact Fracture Properties at Elevated Temperatures by Instrumental Charpy Test.- Cyclic Fatigue Test of Fine Ceramics by Using Piezostack.- High Performance Functional Materials, Electronic Ceramics.- Thermally Stimulated Exoelectron Emission from Aluminum Nitride Ceramic.- Preparation of High Performance PTCR Materials Using a New Sintering Procedure.- Curie Temperature Control of PbTi03-Ti02 PTCR Composite Ceramics by Addition of SrTi03 and CaTi03.- Microstructure and Humidity Sensitive Characteristics of Ti02-Nb205 Sintered Specimens.- Slag Infiltration into Zircon Brick and its Effect on the Local Erosion of Joints of Ladle Lining.- The Importance of Pore Morphology in Sintering Powder Compacts of High Purity BaTi03.- Liquid Phase Sintering and Dielectric Properties of SrTi03 Ceramics.- Fast Heating Effect on Sintering of Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)03.- Low Temperature Sintering of Lead-based Piezoelectric Ceramics with Transient Liquid Phase.- Preparation of the Translucent Sr1_JCBaJCNb206 Ceramics.- Grain Size Dependence of Actuator Characteristics in Electrostrictive PLZT.- Monomorph Actuator.- Chemical Vapor Deposition of Aluminium Nitride.- The Thermal Conductivity of Sintered A1N-YF3 System.- Sinterability of Aluminium Nitride.- High Strength Materials, Si 3N4 and SiC.- Post Fabrication Processing of Silicon Nitride Based Ceramics.- Influence of Powder Characteristics on Some Processing Steps of Silicon Nitride Ceramics.- Grain Boundary Phases of Sintered Silicon Nitride.- Sintering Behavior and ?-? Transformation on Pressureless Sintering of Si3N4.- Effect of Impurities on Sintering of Silicon Nitride.- Sintering of Ultra Fine Si3N4.- Kinetic Investigation of Nitriding and Postsintering of Si/Si3N4 Systems.- The Effects of Sintering Conditions on High Temperature Properties of Sintered Si3N4 Body.- On the ??? Transformation of Sintered Silicon Nitride, Using Ultra Fine Particles as Additives.- Effect of Heat Treatment on the Fracture of Silicon Nitride.- Tensile Strength Properties of Sintered Silicon Nitride.- Densification and Phase Transformation During Sintering of Silicon Nitride Ceramics.- Anisotropic Grain Growth during Final Stage Sintering of Silicon Nitride Ceramics.- Grain Boundaries in SiC with No Additives.- Microstructure and its Control in Reaction-Sintered Silicon Carbide.- Sintering Behavior and Properties of SiC-TiC Ceramic Composites.- Tensile Strength Properties of Sintered Silicon Carbide.- Sintering of Silicon Carbide.- Effects of Beta-SiC Powder Characteristics on the Morphology of Microstructures in the Sintered Bodies.- Non-Oxide Ceramics Sintering by a New Process-Thermite Reaction Assisted Sintering & Synthesis Under High Pressure (THP) Process.- Sialon.- Preparation of ?-Sialon Powders from Alkoxide-Derived Oxides.- Two-Phase ?'-?'-Sialon Ceramics.- Mechanical Properties of Hot-Pressed Silicon Oxynitride Ceramics.- Formation and Properties of Oxynitride Glasses in the System Zr-Y-Si- Al-O-N.- Sinterability and Mechanical Properties of Sialon Materials with Different Amounts of Yttria.- Hydrothermal Corrosion of Sialon Ceramics.- Zirconia.- Sintering of Magnesia Partially Stabilized Zirconia (Mg-PSZ).- Fabrication, Testing, Evaluation and Applications of Zirconia Ceramics.- Environmental Effect on Phase Stability in Y-ZTP Ceramics.- Sintering of Ternary Zirconia Ceramics.- Low-Temperature Sintering of Y-TZP and Y-TZP-A1203 Composites with Transition Metal Oxide Additives.- Evolution of Microstructure in Yttria Partially-Stabilized Zirconia.- Thermal Shock Resistance of Zr02 Based Materials.- Effect of Environmental Gas on Tetragonal to Monoclinic Transformation in Y-TZP.- Improvement of Resistance to Thermal Degradation of Mg-PSZ.- Grinding of Sintered Zirconia.- The Fabrication and Application of Sintering Materials for Energy Conversion Technique.- Lattice Vibrations and Phase Transitions in Zr02.- Local Structures Around Y and Ce Atoms in Stabilized Tetragonal Zr02.- Powder Metallurgical Fabrication of the Thermal-Stress Relief Type of Functionally Gradient Materials.- Magnets.- Low Temperature Sintering of Mn-Zn Ferrites.- Fe-50% Co Sintered Alloy.- CeDidymium-Fe-B Permanent Magnets Prepared by Liquid Phase Sintering.- Sintering, Grain Growth and Fracture of Polycrystalline CuFe5Og.- The Sintering of Soft Magnetic Fe-Si Powder Materials with FeS Liquid Phase.- A New Proposition of the Chemically Heterogeneous Sintered Soft Magnetic Materials, Theory and Practice.- The Calculation and Measurement of the Distribution of Eddy Currents in Chemically Heterogeneous Sintered Soft Magnetic Materials.- Cutting Tools.- Microstructural Design of Wear Resistant Ceramic Systems for Cutting Tool Applications.- Densification Mechanism of TiB2-TaB2-CoB Based Ceramics.- Pressureless Sintering of Alumina-Titanium Carbide Composites for Cutting Tool Applications.- Ceramic Grinding by Sintered Cast Iron Bonded Diamond Grinding Wheel.- Coated Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools.- Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium-Carbonitride Base Cermets.- Development of Zr02 Added Si3N4.- Sintered Diamond Composite with a Tantalum Foil Barrier.- Titanium-Carbonitride-based Hard Alloys for Cutting Tools.- The Microstructure and Properties of Sintered Mo2FeB2 Base Hard Alloys.- Pressureless Sintering and Mechanical Properties of TiB2 Compacts.- Bioceramics.- Characterization of Fine Hydroxyapatite Powders Synthesized under Hydrothermal Conditions.- Apatite Porous Ceramics prepared by the Hydration and Hardening Method.- Solid-State Reactions and Sintering of Zr02-Added Hydroxyapatite Ceramics.- Effect of Ca/P Ratio upon Microstructure and Sinterability of Calcium Hydroxyapatite.- Sintering Characteristics and Mechanical Property of Hydroxyapatite.- Preparation and Sintering of Hydroxyapatite Ceramics.- Composites.- Influence of Whisker Volume Fraction on the Mechanical Properties of SiC Whisker Reinforced 6061 Aluminum Alloy Composites.- Fabrication of Fiber Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites.- Crack Propagation Studies in a Whisker-Glass Composite.- Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of SiC-Whisker/Y-TZP Composite.- Crystallinity and Orientation of SiC Coated on Carbon Fiber.- Solid State Bonding of SiC to Nb.- Solid State Reaction between Alumina and Iron.- Nitride and Carbide Formation onto Ceramics by Molten Dipping Method.- Characteristics of the Alumina-Niobium Solid State Bonding Interface.- Reactivity of Sintered SiC with Metals.- Silicon Carbide-Nickel Interfacial Reaction and Structure.- Superconductors.- Correlation Between Microstructures and Electrical properties of High-Tc Superconductor YBa2Cu30y.- Microstructure and Critical Current Densities of Superconducting Ceramics.- Fabrication of High-Tc Superconducting Ba2Y1Cu307_5 Ceramics by a Partial Oxalate Method and Evaluation of the Materials.- Preparation and Chemical Properties in High-Tc Superconducting (Y, Sc)-Ba-Cu-0 Ceramics.- Surface Treatments of YBa2Cu307.- Superconductivity and Irradiation Effects in Ln-Ba-Cu-Oxide Superconductors.- Oxygen Nonstoichiometry of High-Tc Superconducting Oxides.- Effect of Microstructure on the Jc of YBa2Cu307_JC Bulk Materials.- Thin Film Processes for Fine Ceramics.- Tape Casting of YBa2Cu307_JC Superconductor.- Processing and Critical Current Densities of Oxide Superconductors.- Sintering and Microstructure Development in Superconducting YBa2Cu307_?.- Calcination, Milling and Pressing of Sinterable YBa2Cu307_ff Powders from Mixed Oxides and Carbonates.- Densification Enhancement By Rare-Earth Element Mixing in LnBa2Cu307_d.- Effects of Sintering Atmosphere on Critical Current Density in the Y-Ba- Cu-0 System.
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