Catalysis at surfaces
Catalysis at surfaces
Chapman and Hall, 1988
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Bibliography: p. -244
pbk. ISBN 9780412289705
'Many bodies ... have the property of exerting on other bodies an action which is very different from chemical affinity. By means of this action they produce decomposition in bodies, and form new compounds into the composition of which they do not enter. This new power, hitherto unknown, is common both in organic and inorganic nature ... I shall ... call it catalytic power. I shall also call catalysis the decomposition of bodies by this force. J. J. Berzelius (1836) Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, XXI, 223. This quotation marks the origin of the term catalysis in a scientific context. The earlier literary meaning was 'the breakdown in law and order'. Perhaps Berzelius' train of thought was that catalytic action appeared to defy the scientific laws and principles as formulated in 1836. It is remarkable that this quotation, with some substitution of modern wording, can represent a fair summary of our present view of catalysis. There is now recognized a broad division of catalytic systems under the headings homogeneous and heterogeneous. In the former the catalyst is generally a dissolved species whilst in the latter it is usually an insoluble solid, with the action restricted to the surface. This book concerns hetero- geneous catalysis, which is the more important for industrial applications.
1 Introduction to catalysis.- 1.1 Historical.- 1.2 The basis of catalytic action.- 1.3 Catalysts in action.- 1.4 Concluding remarks.- 2 General aspects of catalysis at surfaces.- 2.1 General classification of bulk-solid materials as catalysts.- 2.2 Nature and classification of enzymes.- 2.3 Basic thermodynamics of heterogeneous catalysis.- 2.4 Aspects of the kinetics of surface catalysed reactions.- 2.5 Concluding remarks.- 3 The constitution of catalytic surfaces.- 3.1 Basic physical forms of catalytic surfaces.- 3.2 The creation of catalytic surfaces.- 3.3 Concluding remarks.- 4 The detection of adsorbates on solid surfaces.- 4.1 Crystal faces and cleaved surfaces of metals.- 4.2 The effects of pressure on surface phenomena.- 4.3 Destructive techniques for surface investigation.- 4.4 Non-destructive techniques for surface investigation.- 4.5 Concluding remarks.- 5 Chemisorption processes at solid surfaces.- 5.1 Transition metal surfaces.- 5.2 Redox oxide surfaces.- 5.3 Solid acid surfaces.- 5.4 Concluding remarks.- 6 Catalytic actions on solid surfaces.- 6.1 Reactions catalysed by transition metals.- 6.2 Oxidation reactions on redox catalysts.- 6.3 Hydrocarbon conversions on solid acid surfaces.- 6.4 Reforming catalysts.- 6.5 Concluding remarks.- 7 Catalytic action by enzymes.- 7.1 Origin of reactivity at the active site.- 7.2 The pH-sensitivity of enzyme catalysis.- 7.3 Roles of metal centres in enzymes.- 7.4 Examples of enzymes in industrial use.- 7.5 Concluding remarks.- 8 Industrial processes based on solid catalysts.- 8.1 Hydrogenation of vegetable oils.- 8.2 Ammonia and nitric acid productions.- 8.3 Methanol synthesis.- 8.4 Synthesis gas conversion processes.- 8.5 Ethylene oxide production.- 8.6 Sulphuric acid production.- 8.7 Linear polyethylene production.- 8.8 Catalytic cracking.- 8.9 Synthetic gasoline production.- 8.10 Some processes using zeolite catalysts.- 8.11 Concluding remarks.- Further reading.
hbk. ISBN 9780412318801
This text provides a balanced introduction to the principles and techniques of heterogeneous catalysis. Beginning with the basic chemistry and physics of catalysis, the book goes on to pay particular attention to the contribution that surface science is making to our understanding of catalysis. It concludes with chapters devoted to carefully chosen examples of real catalytic systems, including catalytic action by enzymes and industrial processes based on solid catalysis. Looking to the future, the book introduces many novel types of catalysis. This book should be of interest to undergraduates and postgraduates in chemistry and related fields.
- Glossary of organic compound nomenclature
- Introduction to catalysis
- general aspects of catalysis at surfaces
- the constitution of catalytic surfaces
- the detection of adsorbates on solid surfaces
- chemisorption processes at solid surfaces
- catalytic actions on solid surfaces
- catalytic action by enzymes
- industrial processes based on solid catalysts.
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