Climate dynamics of the tropics


Climate dynamics of the tropics

by Stefan Hastenrath

(Atmospheric sciences library, v. 8)

Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1991

  • : acid-free paper
  • : pbk

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Updated ed. of: Climate and circulation of the tropics. 1985

Includes bibliographical references and indexes



The first edition of my book "Climate and Circulation of the Tropics" was reasonably up to date to the middle of 1985. In a second printing in 1988 it was possible to complete a few literature references and to correct some misprints. However, vigorous research has taken place over the past five years in various areas of tropical climate dynamics, especially in the atmosphere-ocean mechanisms of climate anomalies, climate prediction, ocean circulation, and paleoclimates. Promising progress has also been made in the application of general circulation modelling to tropical climate problems. In the present second edition, named "Climate Dynamics of the Tropics", I have attempted to incorporate much of the recent work to late 1990. Chapters 8 and 9 have been essentially re-written, and major additions have been made to Chapters 4 and 12 in particular. I would like to acknowledge the continued support by the U.S. National Science Foundation over the past five years. B. Parthasarathy, Poona, and H. Lessmann, San Salvador, sent me updates of data series not easily accessible. I have benefitted from discussions with numerous colleagues in the United States and overseas. In the preparation of this second edition, Marilyn Wolff patiently transferred my illegible hand-written drafts onto word processor. Dierk Polzin and Dan Skemp assisted me with the creation of the page masters and the subject index and Christopher Collimore with the author index.


1. Introduction.- References.- 2. Diurnal Forcings and Local Circulations.- 2.1. Insolation and Heat Budget Forcing.- 2.2. Atmospheric Tides.- 2.3. Circulations on the Local and Meso-Scale.- 2.4. Diurnal Marches of Sea-Air Exchange, Cloudiness, and Precipitation.- 2.5. Synthesis.- References.- 3. Planetary Scale Atmospheric Circulation.- 3.1. Mean Meridional Distribution of Temperature and Humidity.- 3.2. Zonal Wind Regime.- 3.3. Mean Meridional Circulation.- 3.4. Maintenance of the Global Circulation: Angular Momentum.- 3.5. Maintenance of the Global Circulation: Kinetic Energy.- 3.6. Synthesis.- References.- 4. Ocean Circulation.- 4.1. Wind Stress and Motion Field in the Upper Ocean.- 4.2. The Subtropical Gyres.- 4.3. Equatorial Current Systems.- 4.3.1. Overview of Surface Circulation.- 4.3.2. Balance of Forces.- 4.3.3. The North Equatorial Countercurrent.- 4.3.4. Wind Stress, Vertical Motion, Thermocline and Surface Topography.- 4.3.5. The Equatorial Undercurrent.- 4.3.6. Equatorial Waves and Remote Forcing.- 4.3.7. Recent Discoveries of Subsurface Currents.- 4.4. The Monsoon Ocean.- 4.5. Deep Circulation.- 4.6. Synthesis.- References.- 5. Heat and Water Budgets.- 5.1. Basic Theory.- 5.2. Net Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere.- 5.3. Oceanic Heat Budget.- 5.4. Atmospheric Heat Budget.- 5.5. Water Budget.- 5.6. Relative Roles of Oceanic Versus Atmospheric Heat Transports.- 5.7. Synthesis.- References.- 6. Regional Circulation Systems.- 6.1. Overview of the Global Tropics.- 6.2. Jet Streams.- 6.2.1. Basic Dynamics.- 6.2.2. Subtropical Westerly Jet.- 6.2.3. Tropical Easterly Jet.- 6.2.4. West African Mid-Tropospheric Jet.- 6.2.5. East African Low Level Jet.- 6.3. Subtropical Highs.- 6.4. Trades.- 6.5. Trade Inversion.- 6.5.1. Spatial Patterns.- 6.5.2. Origin and Maintenance.- 6.5.3. Climatic Implications.- 6.6. Mid-Tropospheric Inversions.- 6.7. Equatorial Trough Zone.- 6.7.1. The Large-Scale Setting.- 6.7.2. Structure of the Intertropical Convergence Zone.- Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.- Indian Ocean.- Africa.- On Atmospheric and Oceanic Controls.- 6.7.3. Dynamics of Cross-Equatorial Flow.- 6.7.4. Equatorial Dry Zone.- 6.8. Monsoons.- 6.8.1. Definition and Global Perspective.- 6.8.2. Africa.- 6.8.3. Indian Ocean Sector.- 6.8.4. On the Heat and Moisture Budget of the Indian Monsoons.- 6.8.5. Numerical Modelling of the Indian Summer Monsoon.- 6.9. Zonal Circulations.- 6.10. Upper-Tropospheric Anticyclones.- 6.11. Wind Regimes of the Equatorial Stratosphere.- 6.12. Synthesis.- References.- 7. Climatology of Weather Systems.- 7.1. Clouds and Convection.- 7.2. Tropical Storms.- 7.3. Waves in the Easterlies.- 7.4. Squall Lines.- 7.5. Dust Storms of the Sudan.- 7.6. Monsoon Depressions.- 7.7. Subtropical Cyclones.- 7.8. Temporales of Pacific Central America.- 7.9. Cold Surges.- 7.10. Interannual Variability.- 7.11. Synthesis.- References.- 8. Interannual Variability of the Atmosphere-Ocean System.- 8.1. Surface Patterns of the Southern Oscillation.- 8.2. El Nino.- 8.3. Upper-Air Patterns of the Southern Oscillation.- 8.4. Rainfall Anomalies in Indonesia.- 8.5. Vagaries of the Indian Monsoon.- 8.6. The Secas of Northeast Brazil.- 8.7. Rainfall Variations in the Central American - Caribbean Region.- 8.8. Drought and Flood Regimes in Subsaharan Africa.- 8.9. Climate Anomalies at the Angola Coast.- 8.10. Hydrometeorological Anomalies in the Zaire (Congo) Basin.- 8.11. Time Scales of Climate Variability.- 8.12. Synthesis.- References.- 9. Climate Prediction.- 9.1. Indian Monsoon.- 9.2. Indonesian Rainfall.- 9.3. Hong Kong Climate.- 9.4. Southern Africa.- 9.5. Kenya Rainfall.- 9.6. Sahel Drought.- 9.7. The Droughts of Northeast Brazil.- 9.8. Rivers of Northern South America.- 9.9. El Nino.- 9.10. Tropical Storms.- 9.11. Numerical Modelling.- 9.12. Biological Consequences.- 9.13. Synthesis and Outlook.- References.- 10. The Human Impact.- 10.1. Deforestation.- 10.2. Land Use and Surface Albedo.- 10.3. Effects of Dust on Climate.- 10.4. Intentional Climate Modification.- 10.5. Ocean Climate and Fisheries.- 10.6. India.- 10.7. Northeast Brazil.- 10.8. Subsaharan Africa.- 10.9. The Use of Climate Prediction.- 10.10. Synthesis.- References.- 11. Tropical Glaciers and Climate.- 11.1. Spatial Patterns.- 11.2. History of Glacier Variations.- 11.3. Climatic Forcing and Terminus Response.- 11.4. Ice Cores.- 11.5. Synthesis.- References.- 12. Past Climates Of The Tropics.- 12.1. Causes of Climate Variations.- 12.2. Vegetation.- 12.3. Lakes.- 12.4. Glaciers.- 12.5. Deep-Sea Cores.- 12.6. Pacific and Australasia.- 12.7. The Indian Ocean and Surrounding Continents.- 12.8. Africa and the Adjacent Tropical Atlantic.- 12.9. Americas.- 12.10. Numerical Modelling.- 12.11. Synthesis.- References.- Author Index.

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