Wave propagation in the ionosphere


Wave propagation in the ionosphere

K. Rawer

(Developments in electromagnetic theory and applications, v. 5)

Kluwer Academic, c1993

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Includes bibliographical references and indexes



In this book, the author draws on his broad experience to describe both the theory and the applications of wave propagations. The contents are presented in four parts and the sequence of these parts reflect the development of ionospheric and propagational research in areas such as space research geophysics and communications. The first part of the book presents an outline of the theory of electromagnetic waves propagating in a cold electron plasma. For reference, vector analysis, dyadics and eigenvalues introduced in this part are presented in the appendices. Practical aspects of radio wave propagation are the subject of the second part. The typical conditions in different frequency ranges are discussed and the irregular features of the ionospheric structure such as sound and gravity waves are also considered. Warm plasma and the effects of ions are considered in the third part, which includes a discussion of sound-like waves in electron and ion plasmas. Nonlinear effects and instabilities are described in the fourth part.


A. Fundamentals.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Refraction of radio waves in a plasma. Simplest case.- 3. Some effects of refraction.- 4. Properties of a magnetized plasma.- 5. Electromagnetic waves in a cold gyrotropic plasma.- 6. Echoes from a plasma layer.- 7. Propagation of radio waves in a cold magnetoplasma.- B. Wave Propagation in the Ionosphere.- 8. Propagation in the space between Earth and ionosphere (Deka- and hektometer-waves).- 9. Propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (Kilometric and longer waves).- 10. Propagation through the ionosphere.- 11. The real ionosphere: irregularities and acoustic-gravity waves.- 12. Propagation in structured media.- C. Warm, Multi-Component Plasma.- 13. Influence of plasma composition and temperature.- 14. Kinetic theory of a Lorentz plasma.- 15. The Boltzmann equation of a compressible plasma.- 16. Waves in a warm isotropic plasma.- 17. Waves in a warm gyrotropic plasma.- 18. Plasma waves.- D. Nonlinear Phenomena and Unstable Conditions.- 19. Plasma under moderate energy input.- 20. Non-linear phenomena.- 21. Incoherent scatter.- 22. Instabilities and resonances.- 23. Natural (low frequency) emissions.- 24. Heavy disturbances.- Appendix I: Vectors and dyadics.- I.1. Vector algebra.- I.2. Vector analysis.- Appendix II: Dyadics.- II.1. General introduction of dyadics.- II.2. Special dyadics.- II.3. Multiplication of dyadics.- Appendix III. Eigenvalues of dyadics.- Appendix IV. Ray tracing.- IV.1. Group and phase velocity.- IV.2. H.G. Booker's "quartic".- IV.3. K. Suchy's formulation of the problem.- IV.4. H. Poeverlein's construction of the group path.- IV.5. Analytical vs. numerical methods.- Appendix V. Conductivity of magnetized plasmas.- Appendix VI. Special functions.- VI.1. Cylindrical functions.- VI.2. Spherical functions.- VI.3. Other integral functions.- VI.4. Hypergeometric functions.- VI.5. Integral functions of the kinetics theory.- Appendix VII. Partial reflection and penetration.- Acknowledgements.- Indices.- List of Symbols.- Author Index.

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