A history of the modern Middle East


A history of the modern Middle East

William L. Cleveland

Westview Press, c1994

  • : hbk
  • : pbk

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Includes bibliographical references (p. 462-477) and index



: hbk ISBN 9780813305622


Providing analysis of the last 200 years of Middle-Eastern history, this work covers events from the rise of the Safavids and Ottomans to the Gulf War. It focuses on the political history of the area, integrating social, cultural and economic developments to reflect major events and trends, to offer students an introduction to the region and place the events of today in the context of the past.


  • Part 1 The development of Islamic civilization to the 16th century: the rise and expansion of Islam
  • the development of Islamic civilization to the 15th century
  • the Ottoman and Safavid Empires
  • a new imperial synthesis. Part 2 The beginning of the era of transformation: forging a new synthesis - the pattern of reforms, 1789-1849
  • the Ottoman Empire and Egypt during the era of the Tanzimat
  • Egypt and Iran in the late-19th century
  • the response of Islamic society
  • the era of the Young Turks and the Iranian constitutionalists
  • World War I and the end of the Ottoman order. Part 3 The struggle for independence - the inter-war era to the end of World War II: authoritarian reform in Turkey and Iran
  • the Arab struggle for independence - Egypt, Iraq and Transjordan from the inter-war era to 1945
  • the Palestine Mandate and the birth of the state of Israel. Part 4 The independent Middle East since 1945: democracy and authoritarianism - Turkey and Iran, 1945-1975
  • the Middle East in the age of Nasser - the radicalization of Arab politics
  • from Black September to "Peace for Galilee" - Egypt, Israel, Lebanon and the Palestinian resistance
  • the consolidation of authoritarian rule in Syria and Iraq
  • the regimes of Hafiz al-Asad and Saddam Hussein
  • the Arabian Peninsula since 1945
  • the Iranian Revolution and the resurgence of Islam
  • a time of disorder, 1987-1992.

: pbk ISBN 9780813305639


This comprehensive survey analyzes political, social, cultural, and economic developments in the Middle East from the Ottoman and Safavid Empires to the present day. Cleveland lays the groundwork for this modern history by describing the roots of Islamic civilization in ancient times and tracing the relationship between distinctly Middle Eastern perspectives and the broader global developments of the twentieth century. }This comprehensive work provides a penetrating analysis of modern Middle Eastern history, from the Ottoman and Egyptian reforms, through the challenge of Western imperialism, to the Iranian Revolution and the recent Gulf War. After introducing the reader to the regions history from the origins of Islam in the seventh century, Cleveland focuses on the past two centuries of profound and often dramatic change. While built around a framework of political history, the book also carefully integrates social, cultural, and economic developments into a single, carefully crafted account. Cleveland sets the stage with a superb, concise overview of the long-term, general patterns of Middle Eastern history. The book opens with a portrayal of Islam that stresses an understanding of this great world religion and culture on its own terms and in its specific historical setting. The rich potential of this culture manifested itself in shifting centers of Islamic florescence, culminating in the rise of the Ottoman and Safavid Empires as the central political and social entities of the Middle East in the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries.The book next examines the crucial developments of the nineteenth centuryan era characterized by attempts at the self-transformation of Middle Eastern societies, a process sometimes misleadingly referred to as modernization or Westernization. The resulting disruption of the established order was a wrenching and disorienting experience for the peoples of the region. Defeat in World War I delivered the coup de grace to Ottoman rule and brought in the mandate system through which the British and the French sought to impose their overlordship on the Arab world. The interwar years, through to the end of World War II, were characterized by the Arab struggle for independence. This struggle led to the emergence of the major political ideologies of the Arab worldregionalism, pan-Arab nationalismcombined with the enduring appeal of Islamic solidarity. During this same period the two major independent states of the region, Turkey and Iran, embarked on intensive programs of secular reform designed to remake their societies in the image of the West. Several Arab states were able to establish their independence, but this process was greatly complicated by the legacies of European rule, especially the founding of the state of Israel in 1948 and the cold war rivalry of the superpowers. Many of the problems faced in the region today are a direct consequence of this historical legacy: the Arab-Israeli conflict, the concentration of oil wealth into the hands of a few, the Iran-Iraq war, the Palestinian problem, the dissolution of Lebanon, Islamic fundamentalism, and the striving for power on the world stage of states such as Syria, Iraq, and Iran. A History of the Modern Middle East explains the deep historical currents flowing beneath todays headlines, making it essential reading for anyone seeking a better understanding of todays turbulent world. }


  • The Development Of Islamic Civilization To The Eighteenth Century
  • The Rise and Expansion of Islam
  • The Development of Islamic Civilization to the Fifteenth Century
  • The Ottoman and Safavid Empires: A New Imperial Synthesis
  • The Beginnings Of The Era Of Transformation
  • Forging a New Synthesis: The Pattern of Reforms, 1789-1849
  • The Ottoman Empire and Egypt During the Era of the Tanzimat
  • Egypt and Iran in the Late Nineteenth Century
  • The Response of Islamic Society
  • The Era of the Young Turks and the Iranian Constitutionalists
  • World War I and the End of the Ottoman Order
  • The Struggle For Independence: The Interwar Era To The End Of World War Ii
  • Authoritarian Reform in Turkey and Iran
  • The Arab Struggle for Independence: Egypt, Iraq, and Transjordan from the Interwar Era to 1945
  • The Arab Struggle for Independence: Syria, Lebanon, and Saudi Arabia from the Interwar Era to 1945
  • The Palestine Mandate and the Birth of the State of Israel
  • The Independent Middle East Since 1945
  • Democracy and Authoritarianism: Turkey and Iran
  • The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Egyptian Base
  • The Middle East in the Age of Nasser: The Radicalization of Arab Politics
  • From Black September to Peace for Galilee: Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, and the Palestinian National Movement
  • The Consolidation of Authoritarian Rule in Syria and Iraq: The Regimes of Hafiz al-Asad and Saddam Husayn
  • The Arabian Peninsula Since 1945
  • The Iranian Revolution and the Resurgence of Islam
  • A Time of Disorder and Renewal: 1987-1993.

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