Contemporary nephrology


Contemporary nephrology

edited by Saulo Klahr and Shaul G. Massry

Plenum Medical Book Company, 1981-

  • v. 1
  • v. 2
  • v. 3
  • v. 5

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 9




v. 2 ISBN 9780306413032


1 Membrane Transport: Ion Transport in the Kidney and Anuran Epithelia-Mechanisms of Aldosterone Action.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The General Effects of Aldosterone.- 2.1. General Effects of Aldosterone in Anuran Epithelia.- 2.2. General Effects of Aldosterone in the Nephron.- 2.3. General Effects of Aldosterone on Other Mammalian Epithelia.- 3. Mechanisms for the Regulation of Epithelial Ion Transport.- 3.1. The Transport of Sodium Ions.- 3.2. The Transport of Potassium Ions.- 3.3. Proton Transport.- 4. Advances in Explaining the Mechanism of Aldosterone Action.- 4.1. Effect of Aldosterone on Metabolism.- 4.2. Effect of Aldosterone on Na, K-ATPase.- 4.3. Effects of Aldosterone on Ionic Conductances.- 4.4. Effects of Aldosterone on the Synthesis of Specific Proteins.- 4.5. Effects of Aldosterone on Plasma Membranes and Lipid Metabolism.- 5. Summary.- References.- 2 Renal Hemodynamics and Sodium Chloride Excretion.- 1. Autoregulation of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration Rate.- 2. Factors That Influence Renal Hemodynamics.- 2.1. Neural Control.- 2.2. Vasoactive Agents.- 3. Sodium Excretion.- 3.1. Aldosterone in the Regulation of Sodium Excretion.- 3.2. Neural Reflex Control of Sodium Excretion.- 3.3. Intrarenal Hormone Action on Sodium Excretion.- 3.4. Physical Factors in the Regulation of Sodium Excretion.- 4. Chloride Transport.- References.- 3 Renal Metabolism.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methodological Considerations.- 2.1. The Isolated Perfused Rat Kidney.- 2.2. Isolated Renal Tubules from Proximal and Distal Segments.- 2.3. Brush Border and Basolateral Membrane Preparations.- 2.4. Renal Cell Culture Techniques.- 2.5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).- 3. Biochemistry of Tubular Transport.- 3.1. Mechanisms of Transport.- 3.2. Relationships to Oxidative Metabolism.- 4. Selected Aspects of Intermediary Metabolism.- 4.1. Role of Calcium and Calcium Transport.- 4.2. H+ and Intracellular pH.- 4.3. Gluconeogenesis.- 5. Coupling of Active Ion Transport and Aerobic Metabolism.- 6. Renal Lipid Metabolism.- 6.1. Fatty Acid Metabolism.- 6.2. Triacylglycerol (TG).- 6.3. Complex Lipids.- 6.4. Cholesterol.- 7. Hormones and the Kidney.- 7.1. Sites of Action along the Nephron.- 7.2. Steroid Hormones.- 7.3. Mechanism of Action-Aldosterone.- References.- 4 Renal Prostaglandins.- 1. Biochemistry of Renal Prostaglandins.- 1.1. Localization of Prostaglandin Synthesis.- 1.2. The Lipoxygenase Pathway.- 1.3. Renal Phospholipase.- 1.4. Prostaglandin Degradation.- 2. The Role of Prostaglandins in the Control of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration Rate.- 2.1. Renal Prostaglandins and the Control of Renal Blood Flow and Glomerular Filtration Rate in the Rat.- 2.2. The Importance of Renal Prostaglandins in the Control of Renal Blood Flow during Sodium Depletion.- 2.3. Prostaglandins as Regulators of Renal Blood Flow after Reduction of Cardiac Output or in Hepatic Disease.- 2.4. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors in the Presence of Renal Insufficiency.- 2.5. Summary.- 3. The Interrelations between Antidiuretic Hormone and Prostaglandins.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. The Physiologic Interactions of Antidiuretic Hormone and Prostaglandins.- 3.3. Vasopressin and Renal Prostaglandin Synthesis.- 3.4. Effects of Prostaglandins on Urea Permeability.- 3.5. The Possible Interactions of Prostaglandins with Vasopressin-Stimulated Adenylate Cyclase and Intracellular Cyclic AMP.- 3.6. Polyurie States, Diseases of Urinary Concentrating Mechanisms and the Role of Prostaglandins.- 4. Renal Prostaglandin Synthesis and Sodium Excretion.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Sodium Intake as a Determinant of Prostaglandin Excretion.- 4.3. Cyclooxygenase Inhibition and Na Excretion.- 4.4. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors and Diuretics.- 5. Prostaglandins and Renin Secretion by the Kidney.- 5.1. In Vitro Studies of Prostaglandins and Renin.- 5.2. In Vivo Studies of Prostaglandin Infusion and Renin Release.- 5.3. The Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Renin Secretion in Vivo.- 5.4. Prostaglandins, Renin, Potassium, and Bartter's Syndrome.- 6. Renal Prostaglandins and Thromboxane: A Possible Role in Hypertension.- 6.1. Renal Prostaglandin and Thromboxane Synthesis in Experimental and Human Hypertension.- 6.2. The Effects of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Blood Pressure.- 7. The Role of Prostaglandins and Thromboxane in the Renal Response to Diverse Injuries.- 7.1. Ureteral Obstruction.- 7.2. The Role of Thromboxane in the Potassium-Depleted Rat Kidney and in Acute Renal Failure.- 7.3. Platelet Thromboxane and Vascular Prostacyclin in Renal Failure.- 7.4. Interactions of the Renal Kallikrein-Kinin System with Prostaglandins.- References.- 5 Acid-Base Physiology and Pathophysiology.- 1. Bicarbonate Reabsorption and Its Regulation.- 1.1. Mechanism.- 1.2. Factors That Regulate Bicarbonate Reabsorption.- 2. Acid Excretion and Its Regulation.- 2.1. Ammonia Production and Ammonium Excretion.- 2.2. Role of Aldosterone and Potassium.- 2.3. Role of Other Steroid Hormones.- 2.4. Role of Distal Sodium Delivery and Transport.- 3. Urinary PCO2 as an Index of Distal Acidification.- 3.1. Urinary PCO2 during Sodium Bicarbonate Loading.- 3.2. Urine PCO2 during Neutral Sodium Phosphate Infusion.- 4. Acidification by Epithelial Membranes Analogous to the Mammalian Collecting Duct.- 4.1. Nature of the Proton Pump.- 4.2. Factors That Regulate Proton Secretion.- 5. Role of Parathyroid Hormone, Calcium, and Vitamin D on Acid-Base Homeostasis.- 6. Clinical Syndromes.- 6.1. Current Concepts of the Pathogenesis of Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis (DRTA).- 6.2. "Secretory" DRTA.- 6.3. "Back-Leak" DRTA.- 6.4. Distal RTA with Intact Capacity to Lower Urinary pH (Rate-Dependent DRTA).- 6.5. Hyperkalemic DRTA.- 6.6. Selective Aldosterone Deficiency (SAD) ("Type IV RTA").- 6.7. Aldosterone Resistance.- 7. Diagnosis and Treatment.- References.- 6 Mineral Metabolism in Health and Disease.- 1. Parathyroid Hormone.- 1.1. Biosynthesis of PTH.- 1.2. Regulation of PTH Secretion.- 1.3. Regulation of PTH Secretion in Hyperparathyroidism.- 1.4. Metabolism of PTH.- 1.5. Pitfalls in the Interpretation of the Immunoassay for PTH.- 1.6. Parathyroid Hormone: Renal Effects.- 1.7. PTH as a Uremic Toxin.- 2. Calcium and Magnesium: Physiology and Pathophysiology.- 2.1. Renal Handling of Magnesium.- 2.2. Renal Handling of Calcium.- 2.3. Hypercalcemia.- 2.4. Hypocalcemia.- 3. Phosphate Physiology and Pathophysiology.- 3.1. Gastrointestinal Absorption.- 3.2. Renal Handling of Phosphate.- 3.3. Hypophosphatemia.- 3.4. Hyperphosphatemia.- 4. Renal Osteodystrophy.- 4.1. Pathogenesis.- 4.2. Diagnosis.- 4.3. Therapy.- References.- 7 Renal Vascular Hypertension.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Incidence.- 3. Pathophysiology.- 4. Clinical Expression.- 5. Diagnostic Considerations.- 5.1. Intravenous Pyelography.- 5.2. Radioisotope Renography.- 5.3. Digital Subtraction Angiography.- 5.4. Plasma Renin Activity.- 5.5. Angiotensin Competitive Antagonists.- 6. Results of Surgery.- 7. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty.- 8. Medical Therapy in Renovascular Hypertension.- 9. Renal Function: The Effect of Therapy.- 10. Conclusion.- References.- 8 Noninvasive Diagnostic Techniques in Nephrology: Recent Developments.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Microscopic Examination and Dip Tests of the Urine.- 2.1. Leukocyte Esterase Dip Test.- 2.2. Hematuria.- 2.3. Fluorescent-Y-Body Urine Cytology.- 3. Urine Indices and Excretion Products.- 3.1. Fractional Electrolyte Excretion.- 3.2. Renal Tubular Antigen.- 3.3. ?-2-Microglobulin.- 3.4. Urine Immunoreactive Thromboxane B2.- 4. Radioisotope Techniques.- 4.1. Renography.- 4.2. Renal Function Studies.- 4.3. Isotope Imaging.- 5. Sonography.- 5.1. Renal Size and Obstructive Uropathy.- 5.2. In Utero Renal Abnormalities.- 5.3. Renal and Juxtarenal Masses.- 5.4. Renal Vascular Problems.- 5.5. Other Renal Pathology.- 6. Radiography.- 7. Computed Tomography.- 7.1. Tumors and Masses.- 7.2. Renal Trauma.- 7.3. Renal Dysfunction.- 7.4. Renal Vascular Disorders.- 7.5. Dynamic Data.- 8. Digital Subtraction Angiography.- 9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.- References.- 9 Immunological Aspects of Renal Disease.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Immune-Complex-Mediated Glomerulonephritis.- 2.1. Basic Investigations.- 2.2. Autologous Immune Complex Glomerulonephritis.- 2.3. Murine Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.- 2.4. Circulating Immune Complexes.- 3. Complement and Renal Diseases.- 4. Coagulation in Renal Disease.- 5. Cell-Mediated Immunity in Renal Disease.- 6. Mechanisms of Proteinuria.- 6.1. Basic Studies.- 6.2. Clinical Aspects of Asymptomatic Proteinuria and/or Hematuria.- 7. Studies of Glomerular Structure and Function.- 7.1. Structural Studies.- 7.2. Tissue Culture.- 7.3. Fundamental Studies.- 8. Clinical Studies of Renal Disease.- 8.1. Nephrotic Syndrome.- 8.2. Multisystem and Hereditary Disease.- 8.3. Hereditary Diseases.- 8.4. Neoplasms and Glomerular Disease.- 8.5. Infection and Glomerular Disease.- 8.6. Drugs and Renal Disease.- 8.7. Miscellaneous Renal Diseases.- References.- 10 Acute Renal Failure and Toxic Nephropathy.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Pathophysiologic Considerations.- 2.1. Experimental Ischemic ARF.- 2.2. Experimental Myohemoglobinuric ARF.- 2.3. Experimental Nephrotoxic ARF.- 3. Clinical Considerations.- 3.1. Diagnosis of ARF.- 3.2. Clinical Course of ARF.- 3.3. Therapy of ARF.- 4. Summary and Conclusion.- References.- 11 The Kidney in Systemic Disease.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Changes in the Volume of Body Fluid Compartments.- 2.1. Congestive Heart Failure.- 2.2. Cirrhosis of the Liver.- 3. Alterations in the Composition of the Blood (Noxious Substances).- 3.1. Calcium.- 3.2. Rhabdomyolysis-Myoglobinuria.- 3.3. Hemolysis-Hemoglobinuria.- 3.4. Multiple Myeloma-Light Chain Nephropathy.- 4. Alteration of Endogenous Substances That May Lead to Vascular and Tubular Abnormalities.- 5. Tubular and Vascular Disruption Associated with Systemic Disease.- 5.1. Papillary Necrosis.- 5.2. Leukemias and Lymphomas.- References.- 12 Uremia.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Uremic Toxins.- 2.1. Small Molecular Weight Molecules (Mol. Wt. Less Than 300).- 2.2. Middle Molecular Weight Molecules (MM) (Mol. Wt. 200 to 500-2000 to 5000).- 2.3. Large Polypeptides.- 2.4. Problems in Identification of Uremic Toxins.- 3. Chronic Renal Failure.- 3.1. Factors Implicated in Progressive Loss of Renal Function.- 3.2. Adaptation to Nephron Loss.- 3.3. Urea Cycle in Uremia.- 3.4. Amino Acid Metabolism.- 3.5. Muscle Metabolism.- 3.6. Carbohydrate Metabolism-Hypoglycemia.- 3.7. Gastrointestinal Function-Calcium and Phosphate Absorption.- 4. Complications of Uremia.- 4.1. Hematologic.- 4.2. Endocrine.- 4.3. Neurologic.- 4.4. Immunologic.- 4.5. Cardiovascular.- 4.6. Uremic Osteodystrophy.- 4.7. Oxalate in CRF.- References.- 13 Nutrition in Renal Disease.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Nitrogen Metabolism.- 2.1. Nitrogenous Waste Products.- 2.2. Amino Acid Metabolism.- 2.3. Nitrogen-Free Analogues of Essential Amino Acids.- 2.4. The Protein Requirements of Dialysis Patients.- 3. Energy Metabolism.- 3.1. Glucose-Insulin.- 3.2. Lipids.- 4. Vitamins and Trace Metals.- 5. Acute Renal Failure.- 6. Chronic Renal Failure in Children.- 7. Progression of Renal Insufficiency.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. The Course of Renal Insufficiency.- 7.3. Nephrotoxicity of Excessive Dietary Protein.- 7.4. Divalent Ion Metabolism and Loss of Renal Function.- 7.5. Altered Glomerular Hemodynamics and Loss of Residual Renal Function.- 7.6. Progression of Renal Insufficiency in Humans.- References.- 14 Dialysis, Hemofiltration, and Hemoperfusion.- 1. Socioeconomic Issues.- 2. Rehabilitation.- 3. Neuropsychiatrie Aspects.- 4. Survival Rates.- 5. Perceptions by Patients.- 6. Efficiency of Dialysis-Effect on Morbidity of Uremia.- 7. Acute Complications of Hemodialysis.- 7.1. Hypotension.- 7.2. Cardiac Effects of Dialysis.- 7.3. Acetate Toxicity.- 7.4. Hypoxemia Complicating Dialysis.- 7.5. Miscellaneous Acute Complications.- 8. Chronic Complications of Dialysis.- 8.1. Trace Metal Intoxications.- 8.2. Hepatitis.- 8.3. Infection in Dialysis Patients.- 8.4. Carcinogenesis and Dialysis.- 8.5. Heart Disease, Lipids, and Dialysis.- 8.6. Effects of Dialysis on Nutrition.- 8.7. Effects of Dialysis on Calcium Metabolism and Osteodystrophy.- 8.8. Miscellaneous Chronic Complications of Dialysis.- 9. Improvements in Dialysis Technology.- 9.1. Hemoperfusion.- 9.2. Reuse of Dialyzers.- 9.3. Hemofiltration.- 9.4. Hazards of New Treatments.- 10. Peritoneal Dialysis.- 10.1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Peritoneal Dialysis.- 10.2. Physiology of the Peritoneum.- 10.3. Clinical Results of Peritoneal Dialysis.- 10.4. Peritonitis.- 11. Interactions of Dialysis with Drugs and Poisons.- 12. Unusual Indications for Dialysis.- 13. Concluding Commentary.- References.- 15 Renal Transplantation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Cyclosporine.- 2.1. Cyclosporine and Interleukin-2.- 2.2. Cyclosporine and Concanavalin A.- 2.3. Side Effects of Cyclosporine.- 3. Administration of Corticosteroids.- 4. Horse Antihuman Thymocyte Globulin Therapy.- 5. Compatible HLA Antigen Therapy.- 6. Second Renal Allografts.- 7. Renal Failure, Renal Transplant, and Pregnancy.- 8. Infection and the Transplant Recipient.- 9. Conclusions.- References.- 16 Drugs and the Kidney.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Basic Pharmacokinetics and the Effects of Renal Disease.- 2.1. Absorption of Drugs.- 2.2. Drug Distribution and Renal Disease.- 2.3. Binding of Drugs to Plasma Proteins in Renal Disease.- 2.4. Biotransformation.- 3. Drug Handling by the Kidney.- 3.1. Tubular Mechanisms of Drug Transport.- 3.2. Tubular Secretion of Drugs.- 3.3. Changes in Renal Drug Handling with Age.- 4. Clinical Use of Drugs in Renal Failure.- 4.1. Assessment of Renal Function.- 4.2. Nomograms and Dosing Strategy.- 4.3. Effects of Hemodialysis, Hemoperfusion, and Peritoneal Dialysis on Drug Pharmacokinetics.- 4.4. Drug Interactions.- 5. Aspects of Specific Drugs in Patients with Renal Disease.- 5.1. Aminoglycoside Antibiotics.- 5.2. Penicillins and Cephalosporins.- 5.3. Other Antimicrobials.- 5.4. Cardiac Glycosides and Antiarrhythmic Drugs.- 5.5. Antihypertensive Drugs Including New Beta-Blockers.- 5.6. Diuretics.- 5.7. Miscellaneous Drugs.- 6. Nephrotoxicity of Therapeutic Agents.- 6.1. Cyclosporin A.- 6.2. Lithium.- 6.3. ds-Platinum.- 6.4. Aminoglycoside Antibiotics.- 6.5. Radiologic Contrast Media.- 6.6. Miscellaneous Drugs.- References.

v. 5 ISBN 9780306432743


Volume 5 of Contemporary Nephrology summarizes major advances in 15 different areas of nephrology. As in previous volumes the different chapters constitute up- of the discipline contributed by individuals dates in both basic and clinical aspects with in-depth expertise in their respective areas. We are grateful to the authors for their outstanding contributions to this fifth volume. Drs. Reuss and Cotton review in Chapter 1 new advances in our understanding of water transport in epithelial tissues responsive to antidiuretic hormone. In Chap- ters 2 and 3 Dr. Knox and Dr. Schoolwerth and their associates summarize respec- tively new information in the areas of renal hemodynamics and electrolyte excre- tion, and renal metabolism. Chapter 4, written by Drs. Laski and Kurtzman, updates recent developments in the regulation of acid-base balance in health and disease. Chapter 5, contributed by Drs. Sutton and Cameron, provides the reader with a detailed account of progress in the area of mineral metabolism. In Chapter 6, Dr. Campese examines the contribution of sodium, calcium, and neurogenic factors in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. The immunological aspects of renal disease are clearly discussed by Dr. Couser in Chapter 7. New developments in this field are emphasized and should provide the reader with a clear understanding of the direction in which this field is moving. Drs. Humes and Messana (Chapter 8) discuss selected areas in which new developments have occurred in our understand- ing of acute renal failure and toxic nephropathy.


1:Water Transport across ADH-Sensitive Epithelia.- 1. Introduction.- 2. A Working Hypothesis.- 2.1. The Control Condition.- 2.2. The Action of ADH.- 3. Biochemical Aspects of the Mechanism of Action of ADH.- 3.1. ADH Receptors.- 3.2. Adenylate Cyclase.- 3.3. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase and Protein Phosphorylation.- 3.4. Modulators of the Hydrosmotic Response.- 4. Biophysics of Osmotic Water Flow.- 4.1. Water Transport by Solubility-Diffusion.- 4.2. Water Transport via Aqueous Pores.- 4.3. Water Transport via Narrow (Single-File) Pores.- 4.4. Effects of Unstirred Layers.- 4.5. Solvent Drag.- 5. Experimental Bases for the Pore Hypothesis of Water Permeation.- 5.1. Studies Based on Measurements of Transepithelial Osmotic Water Flow.- 5.2. Studies of Osmotic Water Permeability of Single Cell Membranes.- 5.3. The Pathway for Water Permeation.- 6. Role of the Cytoskeleton and Modulation of the Hydrosmotic Effect of ADH.- 7. Other Barriers to Osmotic Water Flow.- 8. Remaining Questions and Future Directions.- References.- 2:Renal Hemodynamics and Sodium Chloride Excretion.- 1. Renal Hemodynamics.- 1.1. Myogenic Mechanism.- 1.2. Tubuloglomerular Feedback Mechanism.- 1.3. Sensitivity of Tubuloglomerular Feedback Mechanism.- 1.4. Other Factors Controlling Renal Hemodynamics.- 2. Sodium Chloride Excretion and Regulation.- 2.1. Sodium Balance and Its Regulation.- 2.2. Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System.- 2.3. Prostaglandins.- 2.4. Atrial Natriuretic Factor.- 3. Function of Discrete Nephron Segments.- 3.1. Proximal Tubule.- 3.2. Loop of Henle.- 3.3. Distal Tubule.- 3.4. The Collecting System.- References.- 3:Renal Metabolism.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Renal Substrate Utilization.- 2.1. Ketone Bodies.- 2.2. Serine Production.- 2.3. Citrate Transport in Metabolism.- 2.4. Kinins and Kallikrein.- 3. Effects of Acidosis on Renal Gene Expression.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Cellular Distribution of Adaptive Response.- 3.3. Altered Rates of Synthesis.- 3.4. Isolation of Specific cDNA.- 3.5. Quantitation of mRNA Levels.- 3.6. Future Studies.- 4. Adenosine in the Kidney.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Adenosine Metabolic Pathways.- 4.3. Distribution of Adenosine Receptors in the Kidney.- 4.4. Renal Handling and Production of Adenosine.- 4.5. Evidence for Adenosine Transport Systems in the Kidney.- 4.6. Physiologic Roles for Adenosine and Adenosine Receptors.- References.- 4:Acid-Base Physiology and Pathophysiology.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Proximal Tubule.- 2.1. Base Exit from the Proximal Tubule Cell.- 2.2. Apical Membrane Proton Transport Mechanisms.- 2.3. Cell pH Regulation in the Proximal Tubule.- 3. Bicarbonate Reabsorption in the Proximal Tubule.- 4. LoopofHenle.- 5. The Distal Nephron.- 5.1. Distal Convoluted Tubule.- 5.2. Studies in Bladder Analogs of Collecting Tubule.- 5.3. Mechanisms and Intracellular pH Regulation.- 5.4. Collecting Tubule Acidification.- 6. Respiratory Acidosis.- 7. Effects of Acidosis.- 8. Ammonia and Urea.- 9. Lactic Acidosis.- 10. Miscellaneous or Global Studies of Acidification.- 11. Clinical Acid-Base Physiology.- 11.1. Tubular Defects.- 11.2. Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Normal Renal Function.- 11.3. Acid-Base Studies in Patients with Renal Impairment.- References.- 5:Mineral Metabolism.- 1. Inorganic Phosphate.- 1.1. Renal Handling of Phosphate.- 1.2. Clinical Disorders of Renal Phosphate Transport.- 1.3. Role of Phosphorus and 1,25-Dihydroxy D in the Secondary Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Failure.- 1.4. Hypophosphatemia.- 1.5. Hyperphosphatemia.- 2. Calcium.- 2.1. Renal Handling of Calcium.- 2.2. Hypercalciuria.- 2.3. Hypocalciuria.- 2.4. Hypercalcemia.- 2.5. Hypocalcemia.- 3. Vitamin D.- 3.1. Vitamin D Metabolism.- 3.2. Regulation of Renal l,25(OH)2D Production.- 3.3. Production and Action of 24,25(OH)2D.- 3.4. Extrarenal Production of l,25(OH)2D.- 3.5. Actions of l,25(OH)2D.- 3.6. l,25(OH)2D, Calcium Metabolism, and the Kidney.- 4. Magnesium.- References.- 6:Sodium, Calcium, and Neurogenic Factors in the Pathogenesis of Essential Hypertension.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Salt and Hypertension.- 2.1. Epidemiologic Studies.- 2.2. Salt Sensitivity and Salt Resistance.- 2.3. Mechanisms Responsible for Salt Sensitivity.- 3. Calcium and Hypertension.- 3.1. Hypercalcemia and Blood Pressure.- 3.2. Calcium Deficiency in Hypertension.- 3.3. The Evidence for Hypercalciuria.- 3.4. Intestinal Calcium Absorption in Hypertension.- 3.5. Reduced Calcium Intake in Hypertension.- 3.6. The Evidence for Hypocalcemia.- 3.7. The Proposed Link between Hypocalcemia and Hypertension.- 3.8. Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Blood Pressure.- 4. Relation between Abnormalities of Sodium and Calcium Metabolism in Hypertension.- References.- 7:Immunologic Aspects of Renal Disease.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Mechanisms of Immune Glomerular Injury.- 2.1. Glomerular Immune Deposit Formation.- 2.2. Mediators of Immune Renal Injury.- 3. Clinical Aspects of Immune Renal Disease.- 3.1. Introduction.- 3.2. Diseases That Present as Acute Glomerulonephritis.- 4. Diseases That Commonly Present as Nephrotic Syndrome.- 4.1. Nephrotic Syndrome-Physiology and Consequences.- 4.2. Minimal-Change Nephrotic Syndrome.- 4.3. Mesangial Proliferative and IgM Nephropathy.- 4.4. Focal Glomerulosclerosis.- 4.5. Membranous Nephropathy.- 4.6. Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis.- 5. Glomerular Involvement in Systemic Diseases.- 5.1. Vasculitis.- 5.2. Glomerulonephritis in Renal Transplants.- 5.3. Thrombotic Microangiopathy (Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura).- References.- 8:Acute Renal Failure and Toxic Nephropathy.- 1. General Aspects.- 2. Cyclosporine.- 2.1. Clinical Features.- 2.2. Pathogenesis.- 2.3. Treatment.- 3. Aminoglycosides.- 3.1. Clinical Features.- 3.2. Comparative Clinical Nephrotoxicity of the Aminoglycosides.- 3.3. Pathogenesis.- 3.4. Modification of Experimental Aminoglycoside Nephrotoxicity.- 4. Radiocontrast Agent Nephrotoxicity.- 4.1. Chemistry of Radiocontrast Agents.- 4.2. Pathogenesis.- 5. Ischemic Acute Renal Failure.- 5.1. Importance of Adenosine Triphosphate.- 5.2. Mitochondrial Dysfunction.- 6. Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Postischemic Renal Injury.- References.- 9:The Kidney in Systemic Disease.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Disorders of the Renal Microvasculature.- 2.1. Thrombotic Angiopathies.- 2.2. Diabetes Mellitus.- 2.3. Sickle Cell Hemoglobinopathy.- 2.4. Scleroderma.- 3. Renal Consequences of Tumors.- References.- 10:Congenital Disorders of the Kidneys and Tumors: Alport's Syndrome and Electrolyte and Metabolism Disorders in Apudomas.- 1. Alport's Syndrome.- 1.1. Clinical Features.- 1.2. Pathology and Pathogenesis.- 2. Electrolyte and Metabolic Disorders in Apudomas.- 2.1. Pheochromocytomas.- 2.2. Medullary Carcinoma of the Thyroid.- 2.3. Carcinoid Tumors.- 2.4. Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors.- References.- 11:The Uremic Syndrome.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Uremic Toxins.- 3. Progression of Renal Dysfunction.- 3.1. Protein Restriction.- 3.2. Phosphate Restriction.- 3.3. Uremic Manifestations.- 3.4. Acquired Cystic Disease.- 3.5. Hypertension and Progression of Uremia.- 4. The Skin.- 5. The Muscles and Joints.- 5.1. Muscles.- 5.2. Joints and Juxtaarticular Structures.- 6. The Gastrointestinal System.- 6.1. Oral Cavity.- 6.2. Esophagus.- 6.3. Stomach and Duodenum.- 6.4. Intestines.- 6.5. Liver and Biliary Tree.- 6.6. Pancreas.- 7. Pulmonary System.- 8. The Cardiovascular System.- 8.1. Heart.- 8.2. Atrial Natriuretic Peptides.- 8.3. Pericardium.- 8.4. Hyperlipidemia.- 8.5. Vasculature.- 9. The Hematopoietic System.- 9.1. Red Blood Cells.- 9.2. Hemostasis.- 9.3. Leukocytes.- 10. The Immune System.- 10.1. Cell-Mediated Immunity.- 10.2. Humoral Immunity.- 11. The Nervous System.- 11.1. Central Nervous System.- 11.2. Peripheral Nervous System.- 11.3. Autonomic Nervous System.- 11.4. Neurobehavioral Disorders.- 12. The Endocrine System.- 12.1. Carbohydrate Metabolism.- 12.2. Thyroid Gland.- 12.3. Gonads.- 12.4. Adrenal Glands.- 12.5. Growth Factors.- 12.6. Parathyroid Glands and Renal Osteodystrophy.- References.- 12:Nutrition in Renal Disease.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Progression of Renal Disease.- 2.1. Experimental Renal Disease.- 2.2. Progression in Humans.- 3. Metabolism in Chronic Renal Failure.- 3.1. Carbohydrate Metabolism.- 3.2. Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism.- 3.3. Lipid Metabolism.- 3.4. Treatment of Hyperlipidemia.- 4. Nutritional Management of CRF Patients.- 5. Nephrotic Syndrome.- 6. Vitamins and Trace Elements.- 6.1. Vitamins.- 6.2. Trace Elements.- 7. Nutrition and Renal Transplantation.- 8. Acute Renal Failure.- References.- 13:Dialysis.- 1. Erythropoietin.- 2. New Middle Molecules.- 2.1. Atrial Natriuretic Factor.- 2.2. (?-2-Microglobulin.- 2.3. Interleukin-1.- 3. Biocompatibility of Synthetic Membranes.- 4. Peritoneal Dialysis.- 5. Hemodynamic Response to Dialysis.- 6. Shortening Treatment Time.- 7. Filtration Modalities.- 8. Access.- References.- 14:Renal Transplantation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Immunosuppression.- 2.1. Pretransplant preparation.- 2.2. Pharmacotherapy.- 2.3. Adverse Effects of Pharmacologic Therapy.- 3. Cellular Basis of Allograft Rejection.- 4. Tomorrow's Shangri-la?.- References.- 15:Drugs and the Kidney.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Pharmacologic Principles and the Effects of Renal Disease.- 2.1. Effect of Renal Dysfunction and Age on Drug Pharmacokinetics.- 2.2. Drug Binding in Renal Disease.- 2.3. Renal Drug Transport Processes.- 3. Drug Effects on Renal Function.- 4. Prescribing for Patients with Renal Dysfunction.- 5. Removal of Drugs by Extracorporeal Means and Peritoneal Dialysis.- 6. Aspects of Specific Drugs in Patients with Renal Disease.- 6.1. Aminoglycosides.- 6.2. Carbapenems.- 6.3. Cephalosporins and Monobactams.- 6.4. Penicillins.- 6.5. Vancomycin-Teicoplanin.- 6.6. Other Antimicrobial Agents Used by Nephrologists.- 6.7. Antiarrhythmic and Cardiac Drugs.- 6.8. Antihypertensives.- 6.9. Beta Blockers.- 6.10. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors.- 6.11. Calcium Antagonists.- 6.12. Diuretics.- 6.13. Analgesics, Antiinflammatory Drugs, and Drugs Used in Gout.- 6.14. Miscellaneous Drugs.- 6.15. Drugs Used for Neurologic, Psychiatric, and Anxiety Disorders.- 6.16. Gastrointestinal Drugs.- 6.17. Lipid-Lowering Agents.- 6.18. Other Drugs Used in Nephrologic Practice.- 7. Drug Nephrotoxicity.- 7.1. Radiographic Contrast Media.- 7.2. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors.- 7.3. Aminoglycoside Nephrotoxicity.- 7.4. Cisplatin.- 7.5. Cyclosporine.- 7.6. Lithium.- 7.7. Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs and Analgesic Nephropathy.- 7.8. Miscellaneous Nephrotoxic.- References.

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  • ISBN
    • 0306406640
    • 0306413035
    • 030641984X
    • 0306432749
  • 出版国コード
  • タイトル言語コード
  • 本文言語コード
  • 出版地
    New York
  • ページ数/冊数
  • 大きさ
    24 cm