CSCW requirements and evaluation


CSCW requirements and evaluation

Peter J. Thomas (ed.)

(Computer supported cooperative work)

Springer, c1996

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 12



Includes bibliographical references (p. [173]-184) and indexes



There is a rapidly-growing commercial awareness of the need for evaluation in CSCW as major producers push to get cooperative technology taken up in commercial organisations. CSCW Requirements and Evaluation looks at ways of evaluating how well computer systems meet the requirements of organisations and their workforces, and establishing how effective, efficient and satisfactory they are for the actual users. It provides an integrated framework for assessment which reflects both practical and academic perspectives. Descriptions of various methods are given, along with examples of their commercial application and specific case studies. Containing contributions from leading authorities in the field, this book will be welcomed by scientists and practitioners involved in organisational research, CSCW, information and business systems, and HCI.


1 Introduction.- 2 CSCW and Requirements Analysis: Requirements as Cooperation/Requirements for Cooperation.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Promoting Cooperation in Requirements.- 2.2.1 Conditions for Cooperation.- 2.2.2 Facilitating Cooperation.- 2.3 Cognitive Mapping.- 2.4 Empirical Results.- 2.5 Conclusion.- 3 "They're Supposed to be Fixing it": Requirements and System Redesign.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 The "nth" Phase in the Requirements Process?.- 3.3 Considering Systems in Use.- 3.3.1 The Technology Resources Centre.- 3.3.2 Requirements.- 3.3.3 "Policy" vs. "Process".- 3.4 The Bank.- 3.5 Conclusion: "Requirements" and "Configuring the User".- 4 Cooperation, Requirements Analysis and CSCW.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.1.1 Designing Usable Systems.- 4.2 Approaches to Requirements Analysis.- 4.2.1 Traditional Approaches.- 4.2.2 Participation.- 4.2.3 The Design Team.- 4.2.4 Group Sessions.- 4.3 Characteristics of Group Session Approaches.- 4.3.1 Communication Between Group Members.- 4.3.2 Sharing of Information.- 4.3.3 Coordination and Control of Shared Objects.- 4.3.4 Sharing of Workspace.- 4.3.5 Organisation and Common Understanding of the Work Process.- 4.3.6 Decision Making.- 4.3.7 Facilitation.- 4.4 Research Issues.- 4.5 Prototype CRC Tools.- 4.6 Evaluation of the CRC Prototype.- 4.7 Research Issues for CSCW.- 5 User Requirements from a Group Perspective: The Case of Distance Learning Mediated by Computer Conferencing.- 5.1 Introduction.- 5.2 On Approaches to the Evaluation of CCS.- 5.3 Objectives of Case Study.- 5.4 Case Study: Distance Learning via Computer Conferencing.- 5.4.1 Operational Constraints of the Study.- 5.4.2 Background to Case Study.- 5.4.3 Objectives of CCS Implementation.- 5.4.4 The CCS Environment: CAUCUS.- 5.4.5 The Structure of a Conference in the CAUCUS Environment.- 5.4.6 Course Material Structure and Schedule for the Computer Conference.- 5.4.7 Participants.- 5.5 Examining the Social Organisation of the Students' Learning Activity in the CCS Environment, and the Problems they Encountered.- 5.5.1 Educational Rationale.- 5.5.2 Operational Factors and Communication Knowledge.- 5.6 Investigation of Participants' Communication Problems.- 5.7 Some General Implications.- 5.8 Summary of Other Findings.- 5.9 Recommendations and Further Development.- 5.10 Conclusions.- 6 Early Evaluation of the Organisational Implications of CSCW Systems.- 6.1 Organisational Impact.- 6.2 Approaches to Evaluation.- 6.2.1 The Logical-Positivist Approach.- Usage Scenario Building.- Predictions and Valuations.- Time and Effort.- 6.2.2 The Interpretative Approach.- 6.3 The User Cost-Benefit Assessment Method.- 6.4 Evaluating the Impact of a Mobile Communications System.- 6.5 Reflections on the Use of the User Cost-Benefit Assessment Method.- 6.5.1 Validity.- 6.5.2 Strengths and Weaknesses of the Method.- 6.5.3 The Development of the Method.- 6.6 Conclusions.- 7 Coordination Breakdowns: How Flexible is Collaborative Work?.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 EMail and Communication Problems.- 7.2.1 Advantages of Email.- 7.2.2 Conflictual Features of Email.- 7.2.3 Coping Strategies.- 7.3 Definitions.- 7.3.1 Shared Understanding.- 7.3.2 Coordination Breakdowns.- 7.3.3 Conflict.- 7.4 The Role of Breakdowns.- 7.4.1 Breakdown Mechanisms.- 7.4.2 Breakdown Techniques.- 7.4.3 Harmonising Mechanisms.- 7.4.4 Harmonising Techniques.- 7.5 Discussion.- 7.6 Conclusions.- 8 The Why, How and What to Evaluate of Interaction Technology: A Review and Proposed Integration.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 HOW to Evaluate: Methodology for Interaction Technology.- 8.3 Four Research Traditions.- 8.4 Choice of Evaluation Approach.- 8.5 WHAT to Evaluate: A Model of Distributed Social Interaction.- 8.5.1 Outcomes.- 8.5.2 Interaction Processes.- 8.5.3 Input.- 8.6 Group Evolution.- 8.7 The Complete Evaluation Process.- 9 Measures of Process.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Common Ground, Effort and Social Salience.- 9.2.1 Common Ground as Agreement in Recall.- 9.2.2 Subjective Ratings.- 9.3 Surface Features of Conversational Content.- 9.3.1 "I", "We", "You".- 9.3.2 Coreferring Expressions and Explicit Topic Openings.- 9.3.3 Breakdown.- 9.4 Conversational Structure.- 9.4.1 Topic Mention.- 9.4.2 Utterance Length, Overlap and Interruptions.- 9.4.3 Gaze.- 9.5 Discussion.- 9.6 Conclusions.- 10 Dealing with Uncertainty - Perspectives on the Evaluation Process.- 10.1 Introduction.- 10.2 Evaluation in a Specific Context - Retail Financial Services.- 10.3 Conclusion - What is Evaluation?.- 11 The Use of Breakdown Analysis in Synchronous CSCW System Design.- 11.1 Introduction.- 11.2 Background.- 11.2.1 Design at a Distance: The Loughborough-Adelaide Studies.- 11.2.2 Breakdowns.- 11.3 Usability Evaluation and CSCW.- 11.3.1 Evaluating the Usability of CSCW Systems.- 11.3.2 The Role of the Model of Interaction in Breakdown Analysis.- 11.4 Breakdown Analysis.- 11.4.1 Stage 1: Transcription and Categorisation of Breakdowns.- 11.4.2 Stage 2: Causal Diagnosis.- 11.4.3 Stage 3: Remedy Prescription.- 11.4.4 Distribution of Breakdowns: Session of the Adelaide-Loughborough Study.- 11.5 Conclusions.- References.- Name Index.

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