Transport phenomena in plants


Transport phenomena in plants

D.A. Baker

(Outline studies in biology)

Chapman and Hall , distributed in the U.S.A. by Halsted Press, a division of J. Wiley & Sons, 1978

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 6



Bibliography: p. 73-76

Includes index



Plants, in addition to their role as primary synthesizers of organic com- pounds, have evolved as selective accumulators of inorganic nutrients from the earth's crust. This ability to mine the physical environment is restricted to green plants and some microorganisms, other life forms being direct1y or indirect1y dependent on this process for their supply of mineral nutrients. The initial accumulation of ions by plants is of ten spatially separated from the photosynthetic parts, necessitating the transport to these parts of the inorganic solutes thus acquired. The requirement for energy-rich materials by the accumulation process is provided by a transport in the opposite direction of organic solutes from the photosynthetic areas. These transport phenomena in plants have been studied at the cellular level, the tissue level, and the whole plant level. The basic problems of analysing the driving forces and the supply of energy for solute transport remain the same for alI systems, but the method of approach and the type of results obtained vary widely with the experimental material employed, reflecting the variation of the solute transporting properties which have se1ectively evolved in response to both internal and external environmental pressures.


1 Introduction.- 2 Solute transport at the cellular level.- 2.1 Driving forces.- 2.2 Carriers and pumps.- 2.3 Energy sources for active transport.- 2.4 Sensitive cells.- 3 Symplast and apoplast.- 3.1 The parallel pathways.- 3.2 Radial barriers - the endodermis.- 3.2.1 Water flux across the root.- 3.3 Transfer cells.- 4 The xylem pathway.- 4.1 Xylem structure.- 4.2 Ion movement in the xylem.- 4.3 Regulation of leaf nutrient content.- 5 The phloem pathway.- 5.1 Experiments to determine the pathway of assimilate translocation.- 5.2 Structural design of the sieve element.- 5.2.1 The sieve plate: open or closed pores?.- 5.2.2 P-protein.- 5.2.3 Membranes and organelles.- 5.2.4 Current interpretation of the structure of the functioning sieve element.- 5.3 Composition of phloem sap.- 5.3.1 Sugars.- 5.3.2 Proteins and amino acids.- 5.3.3 Inorganic solutes.- 5.3.4 Growth substances.- 5.3.5 Other physiologically important substances.- 5.3.6 Some properties of phloem sap.- 5.4 Movement in the phloem.- 5.4.1 Translocation rates and mass transfer.- 5.4.2 Direction of movement.- 5.4.3 Loading and un-loading of the transport system.- 5.5 Physiology of the phloem.- 5.5.1 Temperature.- 5.5.2 Metabolism.- 5.5.3 Light.- 5.5.4 Mineral deficiencies.- 5.5.5 Concentration gradients.- 5.5.6 Hormone-directed transport.- 6 Driving forces for long-distance transport.- 6.1 Transpiration and the cohesion theory.- 6.2 Postulated mechanisms for phloem transport.- 6.2.1 Pressure-driven mass flow.- 6.2.2 Electro-osmosis.- 6.2.3 Motile systems in sieve tubes.- 6.2.4 Some concluding remarks.- References.

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  • ISBN
    • 0412153602
  • LCCN
  • 出版国コード
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  • 出版地
    London,New York
  • ページ数/冊数
    80 p.
  • 大きさ
    22 cm
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