The arts at a new frontier : the National Endowment for the Arts


    • Taylor, Fannie
    • Barresi, Anthony L.


The arts at a new frontier : the National Endowment for the Arts

Fannie Taylor and Anthony L. Barresi

(Nonprofit management and finance)

Plenum Press, c1984

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Includes bibliographies and index



Profound changes were taking place in American society during the period of the 1960s and 1970s when legislation for the National Foundation for the Arts and the Humanities was enacted and the agencies went into operation. It was a period of soul-searching by the American public when the cherished prejudices and civil inequities of the past decades were wiped out and old wounds began to heal; at the same time, however, the Vietnam War was creating new fissures and antagonisms. Into this newly healing, newly questioning society, congressional action thrust the National Council on the Arts in 1964, and the National Endowment for the Arts in 1965. Their mission was to encourage and support the arts, and the men and women charged with this responsibility went about their work with the zeal and enthusiasm of religious converts. The idea of even a minute amount of federal financial assistance to the country's chronically beleaguered and often impoverished artists and arts organi zations seemed strange to a segment of the population that had existed in forgot ten independence from government intervention. Many of the nation's artists and arts leaders were wary, partly because of the uncertainties and constraints of previous patterns of governmental support.


1 Development of Government Support for the Arts.- History of Federal Arts Support to 1965.- The Era of Practical Necessity.- The Era of Economic Necessity.- Reference Notes.- 2 Reaching Legislative Consensus, 1960-1965.- Patterns of Arts Support prior to 1965.- Private Contributions.- Foundation Support of the Arts.- Corporate Support for the Arts.- The Arts in a New Sociological Position.- Important Events Leading to the Passage of Arts Funding Legislation.- General Actions by Government Personnel.- Rationale for Passage of Arts Legislation.- Attempts to Establish a National Advisory Arts Council.- The National Arts and Cultural Development Act: Senate Approval.- House Passage of the National Arts and Cultural Development Act of 1964.- Development of the National Foundation for the Arts and Humanities Legislation.- Provisions of the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act.- Passage of the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act in the House of Representatives.- Executive Approval of the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act.- Reference Notes.- 3 The Roger Stevens Years.- Roger Stevens' Background.- Stevens Joins the National Political Scene.- The National Council for the Arts.- First Council Meeting.- Second Council Meeting.- Studies Prepared for Council Use.- Stevens Responds to Criticism.- The National Endowment for the Arts Becomes Law.- First Program Staff.- Stevens Analyzes Arts Situation.- Initial and Trend-Setting Grants.- Laboratory and Theatre Project.- Theatre Program Develops.- Dance Program Begins.- Individual Grants to Artists-Dance.- Association of American Dance Companies (AADC) Established.- Costume Design and Folk Art.- Literature Program/Poets in the Schools.- The Kenneth Patchen Grant.- International Arts Events Supported.- Musical Beginnings: Some Cacophony.- The American Film Institute.- Housing for Artists.- Spreading Resources.- American Theatre Laboratory.- Architecture and Design Starts Slowly.- Visual Arts.- Museum Purchase Plan.- Beginning the Federal-State Partnership Program.- The Arts Endowment Begins to Take on Character.- "We Were Invisible".- Increasing Visibility.- "The Art of Making Art".- Audience Development Project.- Music Program Grows.- Public Media Program Takes Shape.- Decentralizing American Theatre.- Reauthorization.- Cooling the Inner Cities.- The President Hosts a Dinner.- Final Months.- Reference Notes.- 4 The Nancy Hanks Years.- Hanks Assumes Chairmanship.- Deputy Chairman Michael Straight.- Leonard Garment's Support.- A Public Image.- The Early Partnership.- Expanding the Budget.- The Belmont Report.- The Support of the President.- Reauthorization.- Changing Staff.- Council Defines Goals.- New Dimensions.- Public Opinion Surveyed.- Cooperation and New Efforts.- President Nixon Speaks.- Late Summer Report, 1972.- More Staff Appointments.- Managerial Instincts of Politicians.- Federal Design Improvement Program.- Establishing Expansion Arts.- Expanding Aid to Individual Artists.- Coordinated Residency Touring Program.- The "City" Programs in Architecture.- The Bicentennial.- Triennial Authorization.- Another Office Move.- Nancy Hanks Reappointed to Chairmanship.- Obscenity Ruling.- Museum Report.- The Staff Expands.- Challenge Grants Develop.- Growth Brings Problems.- Watergate Surprises.- Ford Supports Council's First Decade.- Growing State and Community Arts Agencies.- Hanks Reacts to State Agency Problems.- The National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA).- Tenth Anniversary of the Arts Legislation.- Reference Notes.- 5 Opening up the New Frontier.- Touring Projects.- Media Projects.- Expansion Arts Projects.- Accessibility and Awareness Projects.- Special Projects Activities.- Preservation of Heritage Projects.- Federal-State Partnership Program.- Residency Programs as a Means of Achieving Arts Availability.- Historical Development of Artist-in-Residence Concept.- Endowment-Sponsored Community Residencies.- Artists-in-Schools.- Motivation for AIS: The Arts Endowment.- Motivation for AIS: The Education Establishment.- AIS in Operation.- Artists as Teachers.- AIS Growth.- AIS Administration and Program Components.- AIS and Communities.- AIS: A Success or Failure?.- Reference Notes.- 6 At the End of Ten Years.- Reference Notes.- Epilogue.- Reference Notes.- Appendix A National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities.- Appendix B National Council on the Arts.

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