Asking questions in biology : key skills for practical assessments and project work


Asking questions in biology : key skills for practical assessments and project work

Chris Barnard, Francis Gilbert and Peter McGregor

Prentice Hall, 2001

2nd ed

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 1



Includes bibliographical references and index



This new edition is relevant to students taking degrees within Biology, Biochemistry, Physiology, Microbiology, Ecology and Biomedical Sciences. Its unique coverage includes 1st year undergraduates taking modules in Statistics and Experimental Design, Data Analysis, Ecology and discovery-oriented laboratory courses. Also relevant to 2nd and 3rd year undergraduates undertaking project work at this level and beyond.


Preface. I. DOING SCIENCE: WHERE DO QUESTIONS COME FROM. 1. Science as asking questions.2. Basic considerations.3. The skill of asking questions.4. Testing hypotheses.5. How is a hypothesis tested.6. Where do questions come from?7. Curiosity.8. Casual Observation. 9. Exploratory observations.10. Previous studies.11. What this book is about.12. References.II. ASKING QUESTIONS: THE ART OF FRAMING HYPOTHESES AND PREDICTIONS.13. Observation.14. Observational notes and measurements.15. Exploratory analysis.16. Visual exploratory analysis. 17. Summary statistics.18. Forming hypothesese.19. Turning exploratory analysis into hypotheses and predictions.20. Null hypotheses.21. Differences and trends.22. Summary.III. ANSWERING QUESTIONS: WHAT DO THE RESULTS SAY.23. Confirmatory analysis.24. The need for a yardstick in comfirmatory analysis: statistical significance.25. What is statistical significance?26. Significance tests.27. Types of measurement and types of test.28. Simple significance tests for differences and trends.29. Testing hypotheses.30. Deciding what to do.31. Testing Predications.32. Refining hypotheses and predications33. Summary.34. References.IV. PRESENTING INFORMATION: HOW TO COMMUNICATE OUTCOMES AND CONCLUSIONS.35. Presenting figures and tables.36. Presenting analysis of difference.37. Presenting analysis of trends.38. Presenting results in the text.39. Writing reports.40. The sections of a report.41. Example of a report. 42. Summary.43. Test Finder and Help Guide.44. Some Self-Test Questions.APPENDIX I: Table of Confidence Limits To The Median.APPENDIX II: Worked Examples of Significance Tests.APPENDIX III: Significance Tables .Answers to Self-Test Questions .Index.Quick Test-Finder (inside of back cover).

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