Petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties
Petroleum reservoir rock and fluid properties
CRC/Taylor & Francis, 2006
Includes bibliographical references and indexes
A strong foundation in reservoir rock and fluid properties is the backbone of almost all the activities in the petroleum industry. Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties offers a reliable representation of fundamental concepts and practical aspects that encompass this vast subject area. The book provides up-to-date coverage of various rock and fluid properties using derivations, mathematical expressions, and various laboratory measurement techniques. Focused on achieving accurate and reliable data, it describes coring methods used for extracting samples from hydrocarbon formations and considerations for handling samples for conventional and special core analyses. Detailing properties important to reservoir engineering and surface processing, the author emphasizes basic chemical and physical aspects of petroleum reservoir fluids, important phase behavior concepts, fluid sampling, compositional analysis, and assessing the validity of collected fluid samples. The book also presents PVT equipment, phase behavior analysis using laboratory tests, and calculations to elucidate a wide range of properties, such as hydrocarbon vapor liquid equilibria using commonly employed equations-of-state (EOS) models. Covering both theoretical and practical aspects that facilitate the solution of problems encountered in real life situations, Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties is ideal for students in petroleum engineering, including those coming from different backgrounds in engineering. This book is also a valuable reference for chemical engineers diversifying into petroleum engineering and personnel engaged in core analysis, and PVT and reservoir fluid studies.
INTRODUCTION The Formation of Petroleum Reservoirs Typical Characteristics of Petroleum Reservoirs The Significance of Petroleum Reservoir Rock and Fluid Properties PREAMBLE TO PETROLEUM RESERVOIR ROCK PROPERTIES Introduction Coring Methods Important Issues Related to Coring Methods Types of Cores Allocation of Core Data for Measurement of Reservoir Rock Properties Handling of Reservoir Rock Core Samples Types of Core Tests POROSITY Significance and Definition Types of Porosities Classification of Porosity Parameters that Influence Porosity Laboratory Measurement of Porosity Non-Conventional Methods of Porosity Measurements Averaging of Porosity Examples of Typical Porosities ABSOLUTE PERMEABILITY Significance and Definition Mathematical Expression of Permeability - Darcy's Law Dimensional Analysis of Permeability and Definition of a Darcy Application of Darcy's Law to Inclined Flow and Radial Flow Averaging of Permeabilities Permeability of Fractures and Channels Darcy's Law in Field Units Laboratory Measurement of Absolute Permeability Factors Affecting Absolute Permeability Porosity and Permeability Relationships Permeabilities of Different Types of Rocks MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF RESERVOIR ROCKS Introduction Mechanical Properties Electrical Properties FLUID SATURATIONS Significance and Definition Distribution of Fluid Saturations in a Petroleum Reservoir Definition and Mathematical Expressions for Fluid Saturation Reservoir Rock Samples Used for Fluid Saturation Determination Laboratory Measurement of Fluid Saturation Assessing the Validity of Fluid Saturation Data Measured on the Plug End Trim for the Core Plug Sample Special Types of Fluid Saturations Saturation Averaging Factors Affecting Fluid Saturation Determination INTERFACIAL TENSION AND WETTABILITY Introduction and Fundamental Concepts Interfacial and Surface Tension Wettability Fundamental Concepts of Wettability A Discussion on Practical Aspects of Wettability Measurement of Reservoir Rock Wettability Factors Affecting Wettability Relationship between Wettability, Irreducible Water Saturation, and Residual Oil Saturation CAPILLARY PRESSURE Introduction Basic Mathematical Expression of Capillary Pressure The Rise of Liquid in Capillaries Dependence of Capillary Pressure on Rock and Fluid Properties Capillary Pressure and Saturation History Laboratory Measurement of Capillary Pressure Characteristics of Capillary Pressure Curves Converting Laboratory Capillary Pressure Data to Reservoir Conditions Averaging Capillary Pressure - the 'J' Function Calculation of Permeability from Capillary Pressure Effect of Wettability on Capillary Pressure Practical Application of Capillary Pressure RELATIVE PERMEABILITY Fundamental Concepts of Relative Permeability Mathematical Expressions for Relative Permeability Salient Features of Gas-Oil and Water-Oil Relative Permeability Curves Laboratory Measurement of Relative Permeability Determination of Relative Permeability from Capillary Pressure Data Factors Affecting Relative Permeability Measurements Peculiarities of Relative Permeability Data Assessing the Validity of Relative Permeability Data and Determination of Corey Exponents Significance of Relative Permeability Data Three-Phase Relative Permeability INTRODUCTION TO PETROLEUM RESERVOIR FLUIDS Introduction Chemistry of Petroleum The Solid Components of Petroleum Classification of Reservoir Gases and Oils Five Reservoir Fluids Formation Waters INTRODUCTION TO PHASE BEHAVIOR Introduction Definition of Terms Used in Phase Behavior Phase Behavior of a Pure Component Phase Behavior of Two-Component or Binary Systems Phase Behavior of Multicomponent Mixtures Construction of Phase Envelopes PHASE BEHAVIOR OF PETROLEUM RESERVOIR FLUIDS Introduction Preamble to the Phase Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids A brief Description of the Plus Fraction Classification and Identification of Fluid Type Black Oils Volatile Oils Gas Condensates Wet Gases Dry Gases Behavior of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids in the Two-Phase Region SAMPLING OF PETROLEUM RESERVOIR FLUIDS Introduction Practical Considerations of Fluid Sampling Methods of Fluid Sampling Evaluating the Respresentativity of Fluid Samples - Quality Checks Factors Affecting Sample Representativity COMPOSITIONAL ANALYSIS OF PETROLEUM RESERVOIR FLUIDS Introduction Strategy of Compositional Analysis Characteristics of Reservoir Fluid Composition Gas Chromatography True Boiling-Point Distillation Characterization of Pseudo Fractions and Residue Other Nonconventional Methods of Compositional Analysis PVT ANALYSIS AND RESERVOIR FLUID PROPERTIES Introduction Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids Laboratory Tests Adjustment of Black Oil Laboratory Data Other Sources of Obtaining the Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids VAPOR-LIQUID EQUILIBRIA Introduction Ideal Solution Principle Empirical Correlations for Calculating Equilibrium Ratios for Real Solutions Equations-of-State (EOS) Models Use of EOS Models in PVT Packages PROPERTIES OF FORMATION WATERS Introduction Compositional Characteristics of Formation Water Bubble Point Pressure of Formation Water Formation Volume Factor of Formation Water Density of Formation Water Viscosity of Formation Water Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Formation Water Solubility of Formation Water in Hydrocarbons Compressibility of Formation Water
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