Electrical engineering : a pocket reference


Electrical engineering : a pocket reference

Ralf Kories, Heinz Schmidt-Walter

Springer-Verlag, c2003

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 2



Includes bibliographical references and index



This is a superb source of quickly accessible information on the whole area of electrical engineering and electronics. It serves as a concise and quick reference, with self-contained chapters comprising all important expressions, formulas, rules and theorems, as well as many examples and applications.


1 DC Systems.- 1.1 Basic Quantities, Basic Laws.- 1.1.1 Electric Charge.- 1.1.2 Electric Current.- 1.1.3 Voltage and Potential.- 1.1.4 Ohm's Law.- 1.1.5 Resistance and Conductance.- 1.1.6 Temperature Dependence of Resistance.- 1.1.7 Inductance.- 1.1.8 Capacitance.- 1.1.9 Ideal Voltage Source.- 1.1.10 Ideal Current Source.- 1.1.11 Kirchhoff's Law.- Kirchhoff's First Law (Current Law).- Kirchhoff's Second Law (Voltage Law).- 1.1.12 Power and Energy.- Energy and Power in a Resistor.- Energy in an Inductor.- Energy in a Capacitor.- 1.1.13 Efficiency.- 1.1.14 Maximum Power Transfer.- 1.2 Basic Circuits.- 1.2.1 Real Voltage and Current Sources.- Real Voltage Source.- Real Current Source.- Voltage-Current Source Conversion.- 1.2.2 Circuit Elements in Series and Parallel.- Series Combination of Resistors.- Parallel Combination of Resistors.- Series Combination of Conductances.- Parallel Combination of Conductances.- Series Combination of Inductances.- Parallel Combination of Inductances.- Series Combination of Capacitances.- Parallel Combination of Capacitances.- 1.2.3 Star-Delta Transformation.- 1.2.4 Voltage and Current Divider.- Voltage Divider.- Current Divider.- Capacitive and Inductive Dividers.- 1.2.5 RC and RL Combinations.- Series Combination of R and C Driven by a Voltage Source.- Series Combination of R and C Driven by a Current Source.- Parallel Combination of R and C Driven by a Current Source.- Parallel Combination of R and C Driven by a Voltage Source.- Series Combination of R and L Driven by a Voltage Source.- Series Combination of R and L Driven by a Current Source.- Parallel Combination of R and L Driven by a Voltage Source.- Parallel Combination of R and L Driven by a Current Source.- 1.2.6 RLC Combinations.- Series Combination of R, L and C.- 1.3 Calculation Methods for Linear Circuits.- 1.3.1 Rules for Signs.- 1.3.2 Circuit Calculation with Mesh and Node Analysis.- 1.3.3 Superposition.- 1.3.4 Mesh Analysis.- 1.3.5 Node Analysis.- 1.3.6 Thevenin's and Norton's Theorem.- Calculating a Load Current by Thevenin's Theorem.- Calculating a Current Within a Network.- 1.4 Notation Index.- 1.5 Further Reading.- 2 Electric Fields.- 2.1 Electrostatic Fields.- 2.1.1 Coulomb's Law.- 2.1.2 Definition of Electric Field Strength.- 2.1.3 Voltage and Potential.- 2.1.4 Electrostatic Induction.- 2.1.5 Electric Displacement.- 2.1.6 Dielectrics.- 2.1.7 The Coulomb Integral.- 2.1.8 Gauss's Law of Electrostatics.- 2.1.9 Capacitance.- 2.1.10 Electrostatic Field at a Boundary.- 2.1.11 Overview: Fields and Capacitances of Different Geometric Configurations.- 2.1.12 Energy in an Electrostatic Field.- 2.1.13 Forces in an Electrostatic Field.- Force on a Charge.- Force at the Boundary.- 2.1.14 Overview: Characteristics of an Electrostatic Field.- 2.1.15 Relationship between the Electrostatic Field Quantities.- 2.2 Static Steady-State Current Flow.- 2.2.1 Voltage and Potential.- 2.2.2 Current.- 2.2.3 Electric Field Strength.- 2.2.4 Current Density.- 2.2.5 Resistivity and Conductivity.- 2.2.6 Resistance and Conductance.- 2.2.7 Kirchhoff's Laws.- Kirchhoff's First Law (Current Law).- Kirchhoff's Second Law (Mesh Law).- 2.2.8 Static Steady-State Current Flow at Boundaries.- 2.2.9 Overview: Fields and Resistances of Different Geometric Configurations.- 2.2.10 Power and Energy in Static Steady-State Current Flow.- 2.2.11 Overview: Characteristics of Static Steady-State Current Flow.- 2.2.12 Relationship Between Quantities in Static Steady-StateCurrent Flow.- 2.3 Magnetic Fields.- 2.3.1 Force on a Moving Charge.- 2.3.2 Definition of Magnetic Flux Density.- 2.3.3 Biot-Savart's Law.- 2.3.4 Magnetic Field Strength.- 2.3.5 Magnetic Flux.- 2.3.6 Magnetic Voltage and Ampere's Law.- 2.3.7 Magnetic Resistance, Magnetic Conductance, Inductance.- 2.3.8 Materials in a Magnetic Field.- Ferromagnetic Materials.- 2.3.9 Magnetic Fields at Boundaries.- 2.3.10 The Magnetic Circuit.- 2.3.11 Magnetic Circuit with a Permanent Magnet.- 2.3.12 Overview: Inductances of Different Geometric Configurations.- 2.3.13 Induction.- Induction in a Moving Electrical Conductor.- Faraday's Law of Induction.- Self-Induction.- 2.3.14 Mutual Induction.- 2.3.15 Transformer Principle.- 2.3.16 Energy in a Magnetic Field.- Energy in a Magnetic Circuit with an Air Gap.- 2.3.17 Forces in a Magnetic Field.- Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor.- Force at the Boundaries.- 2.3.18 Overview: Characteristics of a Magnetic Field.- 2.3.19 Relationship between the Magnetic Field Quantities.- 2.4 Maxwell's Equations.- 2.5 Notation Index.- 2.6 Further Reading.- 3 AC Systems.- 3.1 Mathematical Basics of AC.- 3.1.1 Sine and Cosine Functions.- Addition of SinusoidalWaveforms.- 3.1.2 Complex Numbers.- Complex Arithmetic.- Representation of Complex Numbers.- Changing Between Different Representations.- 3.1.3 Complex Calculus.- Complex Addition and Subtraction.- Multiplication of Complex Numbers.- 3.1.4 Overview: Complex Number Arithmetic.- 3.1.5 The Complex Exponential Function.- Exponential Function with Imaginary Exponents.- Exponential Function with Complex Exponents.- 3.1.6 Trigonometric Functions with Complex Arguments.- 3.1.7 From Sinusoidal Waveforms to Phasors.- Complex Magnitude.- Relationship Between SinusoidalWaveforms and Phasors.- Addition and Subtraction of Phasors.- 3.2 Sinusoidal Waveforms.- 3.2.1 Characteristics of SinusoidalWaveforms.- 3.2.2 Characteristics of Nonsinusoidal Waveforms.- 3.3 Complex Impedance and Admittance.- 3.3.1 Impedance.- 3.3.2 Complex Impedance of Passive Components.- Resistor.- Inductor.- Capacitor.- 3.3.3 Admittance.- 3.3.4 Complex Admittance of Passive Components.- 3.3.5 Overview: Complex Impedance.- 3.4 Impedance of Passive Components.- 3.5 Combinations of Passive Components.- 3.5.1 Series Combinations.- General Case.- Resistor and Inductor in Series.- Resistor and Capacitor in Series.- Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor in Series.- 3.5.2 Parallel Combinations.- General Case.- Resistor and Inductor in Parallel.- Resistor and Capacitor in Parallel.- Resistor, Inductor and Capacitor in Parallel.- 3.5.3 Overview of Series and Parallel Circuits.- 3.6 Network Transformations.- 3.6.1 Transformation from Parallel to Series Circuits and Vice Versa.- 3.6.2 Sta-Delta (Wye-Delta) and Delta-Star (Delta-Wye) Transformations.- 3.6.3 Circuit Duality.- 3.7 Simple Networks.- 3.7.1 Complex Voltage and Current Division.- 3.7.2 Loaded Complex Voltage Divider.- 3.7.3 Impedance Matching.- 3.7.4 Voltage Divider with Defined Input and Output Resistances.- 3.7.5 Phase-Shifting Circuits.- RC Phase Shifter.- Alternative Phase-Shifting Circuits.- 3.7.6 AC Bridges.- Balancing Condition.- Application: Measurement Technique.- 3.8 Power in AC Circuits.- 3.8.1 Instantaneous Power.- Power in a Resistance.- Power in a Reactive Element.- 3.8.2 Average Power.- Real Power.- Reactive Power.- Apparent Power.- 3.8.3 Complex Power.- 3.8.4 Overview: AC Power.- 3.8.5 Reactive Current Compensation.- 3.9 Three-Phase Supplies.- 3.9.1 Polyphase Systems.- 3.9.2 Three-Phase Systems.- Properties of the Complex Operator a.- 3.9.3 Delta-Connected Generators.- 3.9.4 Star-Connected Generators.- 3.10 Overview: Symmetrical Three-Phase Systems.- 3.10.1 Power in a Three-Phase System.- 3.11 Notation Index.- 3.12 Further Reading.- 4 Current, Voltage and Power Measurement.- 4.1 Electrical Measuring Instruments.- 4.1.1 Moving-Coil Instrument.- 4.1.2 Ratiometer Moving-Coil Instrument.- 4.1.3 Electrodynamic Instrument.- 4.1.4 Moving-Iron Instrument.- 4.1.5 Other Instruments.- 4.1.6 Overview: Electrical Instruments.- 4.2 Measurement of DC Current and Voltage.- 4.2.1 Moving-Coil Instrument.- 4.2.2 Range Extension for Current Measurements.- 4.2.3 Range Extension for Voltage Measurements.- 4.2.4 Overload Protection.- 4.2.5 Systematic Measurement Errors in Current and Voltage Measurement.- 4.3 Measurement of AC Voltage and AC Current.- 4.3.1 Moving-Coil Instrument with Rectifier.- 4.3.2 Moving-Iron Instruments.- 4.3.3 Measurement Range Extension Using an Instrument Transformer.- 4.3.4 RMS Measurement.- 4.4 Power Measurement.- 4.4.1 Power Measurement in a DC Circuit.- 4.4.2 Power Measurement in an AC Circuit.- Three-Voltmeter Method.- Power Factor Measurement.- 4.4.3 Power Measurement in a Multiphase System.- Measurement of the Real Power in a Multiphase System.- Measurement of the Reactive Power in a Multiphase System.- 4.5 Measurement Errors.- 4.5.1 Systematic and Random Errors.- 4.5.2 Guaranteed Error Limits.- 4.6 Overview: Symbols on Measurement Instruments.- 4.7 Overview: Measurement Methods.- 4.8 Notation Index.- 4.9 Further Reading.- 5 Networks at Variable Frequency.- 5.1 Linear Systems.- 5.1.1 Transfer Function, Amplitude and Phase Response.- 5.2 Filters.- 5.2.1 Low-Pass Filter.- 5.2.2 High-Pass Filter.- 5.2.3 Bandpass Filter.- 5.2.4 Stop-Band Filter.- 5.2.5 All-Pass Filter.- 5.3 Simple Filters.- 5.3.1 Low-Pass Filter.- Rise Time.- 5.3.2 Frequency Normalisation.- Approximation of the Magnitude Response.- 5.3.3 High-Pass Filter.- Approximation of the Magnitude Response.- 5.3.4 Higher-Order Filters.- 5.3.5 Bandpass Filter.- 5.3.6 Filter Realisation.- 5.4 Notation Index.- 5.5 Further Reading.- 6 Signals and Systems.- 6.1 Signals.- 6.1.1 Definitions.- 6.1.2 Symmetry Properties of Signals.- 6.2 Fourier Series.- 6.2.1 Trigonometric Form.- Symmetry Properties.- 6.2.2 Amplitude-Phase Form.- 6.2.3 Exponential Form.- Symmetry Properties.- 6.2.4 Overview: Fourier Series Representations.- 6.2.5 Useful Integrals for the Calculation of Fourier Coefficients.- 6.2.6 Useful Fourier Series.- 6.2.7 Application of the Fourier Series.- Spectrum of a Rectangular Signal.- Spectrum of a Sawtooth Signal.- Spectrum of a Composite Signal.- 6.3 Systems.- 6.3.1 System Properties.- Linear Systems.- Causal Systems.- Time-Invariant Systems.- Stable Systems.- LTI Systems.- 6.3.2 Elementary Signals.- The Step Function.- The Rectangular Pulse.- The Triangular Pulse.- The Gaussian Pulse.- The Impulse Function (Delta Function).- 6.3.3 Shifting and Scaling of Time Signals.- 6.3.4 System Responses.- Impulse Response.- Step Response.- System Response to Arbitrary Input Signals.- Rules of Convolution.- Transfer Function.- System Response Calculation in the Frequency Domain.- 6.3.5 Impulse and Step Response Calculation.- Normalisation of Circuits.- Impulse and Step Response of First-Order Systems.- Impulse and Step Response of Second-Order Systems.- 6.3.6 Ideal Systems.- Distortion-Free Systems.- Ideal Low-Pass Filter.- Ideal Bandpass Filter.- 6.4 Fourier Transforms.- 6.4.1 Principle.- 6.4.2 Definition.- 6.4.3 Representation of the Fourier Transform.- Symmetry Properties.- 6.4.4 Overview: Properties of the Fourier Transform.- 6.4.5 Fourier Transforms of Elementary Signals.- Spectrum of the Delta Function.- Spectrum of the Signum and the Step Functions.- Spectrum of the Rectangular Pulse.- Spectrum of the Triangular Pulse.- Spectrum of the Gaussian Pulse.- Spectrum of Harmonic Functions.- 6.4.6 Summary of Fourier Transforms.- 6.5 Nonlinear Systems.- 6.5.1 Definition.- 6.5.2 Characterisation of Nonlinear Systems.- Characteristic Equation.- Total Harmonic Distortion.- Signal-to-Intermodulation Ratio.- 6.6 Notation Index.- 6.7 Further Reading.- 7 Analogue Circuit Design.- 7.1 Methods of Analysis.- 7.1.1 Linearisation at the Operating Point.- 7.1.2 AC Equivalent Circuit.- 7.1.3 Input and Output Impedance.- Determination of the Input Impedance.- Determination of the Output Impedance.- Combination of Two-Terminal Networks.- 7.1.4 Two-Port Networks.- Two-Port Network Equations.- Hybrid Parameters (h-Parameters).- Admittance Parameters (y-Parameters).- 7.1.5 Block Diagrams.- Calculation Rules for Block Diagrams.- 7.1.6 Bode Plot.- 7.2 Silicon and Germanium Diodes.- 7.2.1 Current-Voltage Characteristic of Si and Ge Diodes.- 7.2.2 Temperature Dependency of the Threshold Voltage.- 7.2.3 Dynamic Resistance (Differential Resistance).- 7.3 Small-Signal Amplifier with Bipolar Transistors.- 7.3.1 Transistor Characteristics.- Symbols, Voltages and Currents for Bipolar Transistors.- Output Characteristics.- Transfer Characteristic.- Input Characteristic.- Static Current Gain ?DC.- Differential Current Gain ?.- Transconductance gm.- Thermal Voltage Drift.- Differential Input Resistance rBE.- Differential Output Resistance rinCE.- Reverse Voltage-Transfer Ratio Ar.- Unity Gain and Critical Frequencies.- 7.3.2 Equivalent Circuits.- Static Equivalent Circuit.- AC Equivalent Circuit.- The Giacoletto Equivalent Circuit.- 7.3.3 Darlington Pair.- Pseudo-Darlington Pair.- 7.3.4 Basic Circuits with Bipolar Transistors.- 7.3.5 Common-Emitter Circuit.- Common-Emitter Circuit Two-Port Network Equations.- Common-Emitter AC Equivalent Circuit.- Common-Emitter Circuit Input Impedance.- Common-Emitter Circuit Output Impedance.- Common-Emitter Circuit AC Voltage Gain.- Operating Point Biasing.- Operating Point Stabilisation.- Load Line.- Common-Emitter Circuit at High Frequencies.- 7.3.6 Common-Collector Circuit (Emitter Follower).- Common-Collector AC Equivalent Circuit.- Common-Collector Circuit Input Impedance.- Common-Collector Circuit Output Impedance.- Common-Collector Circuit AC Current Gain.- Common-Collector Circuit at High Frequencies.- 7.3.7 Common-Base Circuit.- Common-Base AC Equivalent Circuit.- Common-Base Circuit Input Impedance.- Common-Base Circuit Output Impedance.- Common-Base Circuit AC Voltage Gain.- Common-Base Circuit at High Frequencies.- 7.3.8 Overview: Basic Bipolar Transistor Circuits.- 7.3.9 Bipolar Transistor Current Sources.- 7.3.10 Bipolar Transistor Differential Amplifier.- Differential Mode Gain.- Common-Mode Gain.- Common-Mode Rejection Ratio.- Differential Amplifier Input Impedance.- Differential Amplifier Output Impedance.- Offset Voltage of the Differential Amplifier.- Differential Amplifier Offset Current.- Input Offset Voltage Drift.- Differential Amplifier Examples.- 7.3.11 Overview: Bipolar Transistor Differential Amplifiers.- 7.3.12 Current Mirror.- Current Mirror Variations.- 7.4 Field-Effect Transistor Small-Signal Amplifiers.- 7.4.1 Transistor Characteristics and Ratings.- Symbols, Voltages and Currents for Field-Effect Transistors.- JFET Characteristic Curves.- IGFET Characteristic Curves.- Transconductance.- Dynamic Output Resistance.- Input Impedance.- 7.4.2 Equivalent Circuit.- Equivalent Circuit for Low Frequencies.- Equivalent Circuit for High Frequencies.- Critical Frequency of Transconductance.- 7.4.3 Basic Circuits using Field-Effect Transistors.- 7.4.4 Common-Source Circuit.- Common-Source Two-Port Parameters.- AC Equivalent Circuit of the Common-Source Circuit.- Input Impedance of the Common-Source Circuit.- Output Impedance of the Common-Source Circuit.- AC Voltage Gain.- Operating-Point Biasing.- Common-Drain Circuit, Source Follower.- AC Equivalent Circuit of the common-drain Circuit.- Input Impedance of the Common-Drain Circuit.- Output Impedance of the Common-Drain Circuit.- Voltage Gain of the Common-Drain Circuit.- Common-Drain Circuit at High Frequencies.- 7.4.5 Common-Gate Circuit.- Input Impedance of the Common-Gate Circuit.- Output Impedance of the Common-Gate Circuit.- Voltage Gain of the Common-Gate Circuit.- 7.4.6 Overview: Basic Circuits using Field-Effect Transistors.- 7.4.7 FET Current Source.- 7.4.8 Differential Amplifier with Field-Effect Transistors.- Differential Mode Gain.- Common-Mode Gain.- Common-Mode Rejection Ratio.- Input Impedance.- Output Impedance.- 7.4.9 Overview: Differential Amplifier with FETs.- 7.4.10 Controllable Resistor FETs.- 7.5 Negative Feedback.- 7.5.1 Feedback Topologies.- 7.5.2 Influence of Negative Feedback on the Input and Output Impedance.- Input and Output Impedance of the Four Kinds of Feedback.- 7.5.3 Influence of Negative Feedback on Frequency Response.- 7.5.4 Stability of Systems with Negative Feedback.- 7.6 Operational Amplifiers.- 7.6.1 Characteristics of the Operational Amplifier.- Output Voltage Swing.- Offset Voltage.- Offset Voltage Drift.- Common-Mode Input Swing.- Differential Mode Gain.- Common-Mode Gain.- Common-Mode Rejection Ratio.- Power Supply Rejection Ratio.- Input Impedance.- Output Impedance.- Input Bias Current.- Gain-Bandwidth Product (Unity Gain Frequency).- Critical Frequency.- Slew Rate of the Output Voltage.- Equivalent Circuit of the Operational Amplifier.- 7.6.2 Frequency Compensation.- 7.6.3 Comparators.- 7.6.4 Circuits with Operational Amplifiers.- Impedance Converter (follower).- Noninverting Amplifier.- Inverting Amplifier.- Summing Amplifier.- Difference Amplifier.- Instrumentation Amplifier.- Voltage-Controlled Current Source.- Integrator.- Differentiator.- AC Voltage Amplifier with Single-Rail Supply.- Voltage Setting with Defined Slew Rate.- Schmitt Trigger.- Triangle- and Square-Wave Generator.- Multivibrator.- Sawtooth Generator.- Pulse-Width Modulator.- 7.7 Active Filters.- 7.7.1 Low-Pass Filters.- Theory of Low-Pass Filters.- Low-Pass Filter Calculations.- Low-Pass Filter Circuits.- 7.7.2 High-Pass Filters.- Theory of High-Pass Filters.- High-Pass Filter Circuits.- 7.7.3 Bandpass Filters.- Second-Order Bandpass Filter.- Second-Order Bandpass Filter Circuit.- Fourth- and Higher-Order Bandpass Filters.- 7.7.4 Universal Filter.- 7.7.5 Switched-Capacitor Filter.- 7.8 Oscillators.- 7.8.1 RC Oscillators.- Phase-Shift Oscillator.- Wien Bridge Oscillator.- 7.8.2 LC Tuned Oscillators.- Meissner Oscillator.- Hartley Oscillator.- Colpitts Oscillator.- 7.8.3 Quartz/Crystal Oscillators.- Pierce Oscillator.- Quartz Oscillator with TTL Gates.- 7.8.4 Multivibrators.- 7.9 Heating and Cooling.- 7.9.1 Reliability and Lifetime.- 7.9.2 Temperature Calculation.- Thermal Resistance.- Thermal Capacity.- Transient Thermal Impedance.- 7.10 Power Amplifiers.- 7.10.1 Emitter Follower.- 7.10.2 Complementary Emitter Follower in Class B Operation.- 7.10.3 Complementary Emitter Follower in Class C Operation.- 7.10.4 The Characteristic Curves of the Operation Classes.- 7.10.5 Complementary Emitter Follower in Class AB Operation.- Biasing for Class AB Operation.- Complementary Emitter Follower with Darlington Transistors.- Current-Limiting Complementary Emitter Follower.- 7.10.6 Input Signal Injection to Power Amplifiers.- Input Signal Injection using a Differential Amplifier.- Input Signal Injection Using an Op-Amp.- 7.10.7 Switched-Mode Amplifiers.- 7.11 Notation Index.- 7.12 Further Reading.- 8 Digital Electronics.- 8.1 Logic Algebra.- 8.1.1 Logic Variables and Logic Gates.- Inversion.- And Function.- Or Function.- 8.1.2 Logic Functions and their Symbols.- Inverter (Not).- And Gate.- Or Gate.- Nand Gate.- Nor Gate.- Xor Gate, Exclusive Or.- 8.1.3 Logic Transformations.- Commutative Laws.- Associative Laws.- Distributive Laws.- Inversion Laws (DeMorgan's Rules).- 8.1.4 Overview: Logic Transformations.- 8.1.5 Analysis of Logic Circuits.- 8.1.6 Sum of Products and Product of Sums.- Sum of Products.- Product of Sums.- 8.1.7 Systematic Reduction of a Logic Function.- Karnaugh Map.- The Quine-McCluskey Technique.- 8.1.8 Synthesis of Combinational Circuits.- Implementation Using only Nand Gates.- Implementation Using only Nor Gates.- 8.2 Electronic Realisation of Logic Circuits.- 8.2.1 Electrical Specification.- Voltage Levels.- Transfer Characteristic.- Loading.- Noise Margin.- Propagation Delay Time.- Rise Times.- Power Loss.- Minimum Slew Rate.- Integration.- 8.2.2 Overview: Notation in Data Sheets.- 8.2.3 TTL Family.- TTL Devices.- Basic TTL Gate Circuit.- 8.2.4 CMOS Family.- 8.2.5 Comparison of TTL and CMOS.- Other Logic Families.- 8.2.6 Special Circuit Variations.- Outputs with Open Collector.- Wired And/Or.- Tri-State Outputs.- Schmitt Trigger Inputs.- 8.3 Combinational Circuits and Sequential Logic.- 8.3.1 Dependency Notation.- Overview: Dependency Notation.- 8.3.2 Circuit Symbols for Combinational and Sequential Logic.- 8.4 Examples of Combinational Circuits.- 8.4.1 1-to-n Decoder.- 8.4.2 Multiplexer and Demultiplexer.- Overview of Circuits.- 8.5 Latches and Flip-Flops.- 8.5.1 Flip-Flop Applications.- 8.5.2 SR Flip-Flop.- SR Flip-Flop with Clock Input.- 8.5.3 D Flip-Flop.- 8.5.4 Master-Slave Flip-Flop.- 8.5.5 JK Flip-Flop.- 8.5.6 Flip-Flop Triggering.- 8.5.7 Notation for Flip-Flop Circuit Symbols.- 8.5.8 Overview: Flip-Flops.- 8.5.9 Overview: Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops.- 8.5.10 Synthesis of Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops.- 8.5.11 Overview: Flip-Flop Circuits.- 8.6 Memory.- 8.6.1 Memory Construction.- 8.6.2 Memory Access.- 8.6.3 Static and Dynamic RAMs.- Variations of RAM.- 8.6.4 Read-Only Memory.- 8.6.5 Programmable Logic Devices.- Principle of Operation.- PLD Types.- Output Circuits.- 8.7 Registers and Shift Registers.- 8.8 Counters.- 8.8.1 Asynchronous Counters.- Binary Counter.- Decimal Counter.- Down Counter.- Up/Down Counter.- Programmable Counter.- 8.8.2 Synchronous Counters.- Cascading Synchronous Counters.- 8.8.3 Overview: TTL and CMOS Counters.- TTL Counters.- CMOS Counters.- 8.9 Design and Synthesis of Sequential Logic.- 8.10 Further Reading.- 9 Power Supplies.- 9.1 Power Transformers.- 9.2 Rectification and Filtering.- 9.2.1 Different Rectifier Circuits.- 9.3 Analogue Voltage Stabilisation.- 9.3.1 Voltage Stabilisation with Zener Diode.- 9.3.2 Analogue Stabilisation with Transistor.- 9.3.3 Voltage Regulation.- Integrated Voltage Regulators.- 9.4 Switched Mode Power Supplies.- 9.4.1 Single-Ended Converters, Secondary Switched SMPS.- Buck Converter.- Boost Converter.- Buck-Boost Converter.- 9.4.2 Primary Switched SMPS.- Flyback Converter.- Single-Transistor Forward Converter.- Push-Pull Converters.- Resonant Converters.- 9.4.3 Overview: Switched-Mode Power Supplies.- 9.4.4 Control of Switched-Mode Power Supplies.- Voltage-Mode Control.- Current-Mode Control.- Comparison: Voltage-Mode vs. Current-Mode Control.- Design of the PI Controller.- 9.4.5 Design of Inductors and High-Frequency Transformers.- Calculation of Inductors.- Calculation of High-Frequency Transformers.- 9.4.6 Power Factor Control.- Currents, Voltages and Power of the PFC.- Controlling the PFC.- 9.4.7 Radio-Frequency Interference Suppression of Switched-Mode Power Supplies.- Radio-Frequency Interference Radiation.- Mains Input Conducted-Mode Interference.- Suppression of Common-Mode Radio-Frequency Interference.- Suppression of Differential-Mode Radio Frequency Interference.- Complete Radio-Frequency Interference Filter.- 9.5 Notation Index.- 9.6 Further Reading.- A Mathematical Basics.- A.1 Trigonometric Functions.- A.1.1 Properties.- A.1.2 Sums and Differences of Trigonometric Functions.- A.1.3 Sums and Differences in the Argument.- A.1.4 Multiples of the Argument.- A.1.5 Weighted Sums of Trigonometric Functions.- A.1.6 Products of Trigonometric Functions.- A.1.7 Triple Products.- A.1.8 Powers of Trigonometric Functions.- A.1.9 Trigonometric Functions with Complex Arguments.- A.2 Inverse Trigonometric Functions (Arc Functions).- A.3 Hyperbolic Functions.- A.4 Differential Calculus.- A.4.1 Basics of Differential Calculus.- A.4.2 Derivatives of Elementary Functions.- A.5 Integral Calculus.- A.5.1 Basics of Integral Calculus.- A.5.1.1 Integrals of Elementary Functions.- A.5.2 Integrals Involving Trigonometric Functions.- A.5.3 Integrals Involving Exponential Functions.- A.5.4 Integrals Involving Inverse Trigonometric Functions.- A.5.5 Definite Integrals.- A.6 The Integral of the Standard Normal Distribution.- B Tables.- B.1 The International System of Units (SI).- B.1.1 Decimal Prefixes.- B.1.2 SI Units in Electrical Engineering.- B.2 Naturally Occurring Constants.- B.3 Symbols of the Greek Alphabet.- B.4 Units and Definitions of Technical-Physical Quantities.- B.5 Imperial and American Units.- B.6 Other Units.- B.7 Charge and Discharge Curves.- B.8 IEC Standard Series.- B.9 Resistor Colour Code.- B.10 Parallel Combination of Resistors.- B.11 Selecting Track Dimensions for Current Flow.- B.12 AmericanWire Gauge.- B.13 Dry Cell Batteries.- B.14 Notation of Radio-Frequency Ranges.- B.15 Ratios.- B.15.1 Absolute Voltage Levels.- B.15.1.1 Conversion of Power and Voltage Level Ratios.- B.15.2 Relative Levels.- B.16 V.24 Interface.- B.17 Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency.- B.18 ASCII Coding.- B.19 Resolution and Coding for Analogue-to-Digital Converters.- B.20 Chemical Elements.- B.21 Materials.- C Acronyms.- D Circuit Symbols.

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