Scanning probe microscopy techniques


Scanning probe microscopy techniques

Bharat Bhushan, Harald Fuchs

(Nanoscience and technology, . Applied scanning probe methods ; 11)

Springer, c2009

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"The ability to accurately and reproducibly measure the properties and perf- mance characteristics of nanoscale materials, devices, and systems is a critical enabler for progress in fundamental nanoscience, in the design of new nanoma- rials, and ultimately in manufacturing new nanoscale products [1]. " This quotation from the US National Nanotechnology Initiative emphasizes the need for measu- ment tools in emerging nanomaterial applications, a eld predicted to generate a multibillion-dollar market within 10 years. One speci c measurement need is for nanomechanical information-knowledge on the nanoscale of mechanical prop- ties such as elastic modulus, adhesion, and friction. Accurate information is essential not only to predict the performance of a system before use, but also to evaluate its reliability during or after use. The measurement need is motivated partly by the fact that new applications often involve structures with nanoscale dimensions (e. g. , nanoelectromechanical systems, nanoimprint lithography). Measurements of such structures by necessity must provide nanoscale spatial resolution. Other new structures have larger overall dimensions, but integrate disparate materials on the micro- or nanoscale (e. g. , electronic interconnect, nanocomposites). In such cases, nanoscale information is needed in order to differentiate the properties of the various components. Many methods to measure small-scale mechanical properties have been devised, including ones based on indentation [2-4], on ultrasonics [5,6], and on other phy- cal phenomena [7,8]. Such methods often have drawbacks: they are not suf ciently quantitative, are limited to specialized geometries, and so forth.


Oscillation Control in Dynamic SPM with Quartz Sensors.- Atomic Force Microscope Cantilevers Used as Sensors for Monitoring Microdrop Evaporation.- Mechanical Diode-Based Ultrasonic Atomic Force Microscopies.- Contact Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool in Adhesion Science.- Contact Resonance Force Microscopy Techniques for Nanomechanical Measurements.- AFM Nanoindentation Method: Geometrical Effects of the Indenter Tip.- Local Mechanical Properties by Atomic Force Microscopy Nanoindentations.- Thermal Activation Effects in Dynamic Force Spectroscopy and Atomic Friction.

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