# Fundamentals of thermodynamics

## 書誌事項

Fundamentals of thermodynamics

Claus Borgnakke, Richard E. Sonntag

Wiley, c2009

7th ed., International student version, SI version

## 注記

Includes index

Student companion site registration code

## 内容説明・目次

Now in its seventh edition, Fundamentals of Thermodynamics continues to offer a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of classical thermodynamics, while retaining an engineering perspective. With concise, applications-oriented discussion of topics and self-test problems the text encourages students to monitor their own comprehension. The seventh edition is updated with additional examples, homework problems, and illustrations to increase student understanding. The text lays the groundwork for subsequent studies in fields such as fluid mechanics, heat transfer and statistical thermodynamics, and prepares students to effectively apply thermodynamics in the practice of engineering.

• 1 SOME INTRODUCTORY COMMENTS 1 1.1 The Simple Steam Power Plant, 1 1.2 Fuel Cells, 2 1.3 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 5 1.4 The Thermoelectric Refrigerator, 7 1.5 The Air Separation Plant, 8 1.6 The Gas Turbine, 9 1.7 The Chemical Rocket Engine, 11 1.8 Other Applications and Environmental Issues, 12 2 SOME CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS 13 2.1 A Thermodynamic System and the Control Volume, 13 2.2 Macroscopic Versus Microscopic Point of View, 14 2.3 Properties and State of a Substance, 15 2.4 Processes and Cycles, 16 2.5 Units for Mass, Length, Time, and Force, 17 2.6 Energy, 20 2.7 Specific Volume and Density, 22 2.8 Pressure, 25 2.9 Equality of Temperature, 30 2.10 The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, 31 2.11 Temperature Scales, 31 2.12 Engineering Appilication, 33 Summary, 37 Problems, 38 3 PROPERTIES OF A PURE SUBSTANCE 47 3.1 The Pure Substance, 48 3.2 Vapor-Liquid-Solid-Phase Equilibrium in a Pure Substance, 48 3.3 Independent Properties of a Pure Substance, 55 3.4 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties, 55 3.5 Thermodynamic Surfaces, 63 3.6 The P-V-T Behavior of Low- and Moderate-Density Gases, 65 3.7 The Compressibility Factor, 69 3.8 Equations of State, 72 3.9 Computerized Tables, 73 3.10 Engineering Applications, 75 Summary, 77 Problems, 78 4 WORK AND HEAT 90 4.1 Definition of Work, 90 4.2 Units for Work, 92 4.3 Work Done at the Moving Boundary of a Simple Compressible System, 93 4.4 Other Systems that Involve Work, 102 4.5 Concluding Remarks Regarding Work, 104 4.6 Definition of Heat, 106 4.7 Heat Transfer Modes, 107 4.8 Comparison of Heat and Work, 109 4.9 Engineering Applications, 110 Summary, 113 Problems, 114 5 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 127 5.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Mass Undergoing a Cycle, 127 5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Change in State of a Control Mass, 128 5.3 Internal Energy-A Thermodynamic Property, 135 5.4 Problem Analysis and Solution Technique, 137 5.5 The Thermodynamic Property Enthalpy, 141 5.6 The Constant-Volume and Constant-Pressure Specific Heats, 146 5.7 The Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and Specific Heat of Ideal Gases, 147 5.8 The First Law as a Rate Equation, 154 5.9 Conservation of Mass, 156 5.10 Engineering Applications, 157 Summary, 160 Problems, 162 6 FIRST-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 180 6.1 Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume, 180 6.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 183 6.3 The Steady-State Process, 185 6.4 Examples of Steady-State Processes, 187 6.5 The Transient Process, 202 6.6 Engineering Applications, 211 Summary, 215 Problems, 218 7 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 238 7.1 Heat Engines and Refrigerators, 238 7.2 The Second Law of Thermodynamics, 244 7.3 The Reversible Process, 247 7.4 Factors that Render Processes Irreversible, 248 7.5 The Carnot Cycle, 251 7.6 Two Propositions Regarding the Efficiency of a Carnot Cycle, 253 7.7 The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale, 254 7.8 The Ideal-Gas Temperature Scale, 255 7.9 Ideal versus Real Machines, 259 Confirmation Pages 7.10 Engineering Applications, 262 Summary, 265 Problems, 267 8 ENTROPY 279 8.1 The Inequality of Clausius, 279 8.2 Entropy-A Property of a System, 283 8.3 The Entropy of a Pure Substance, 285 8.4 Entropy Change in Reversible Processes, 287 8.5 The Thermodynamic Property Relation, 291 8.6 Entropy Change of a Solid or Liquid, 293 8.7 Entropy Change of an Ideal Gas, 294 8.8 The Reversible Polytropic Process for an Ideal Gas, 298 8.9 Entropy Change of a Control Mass During an Irreversible Process, 302 8.10 Entropy Generation, 303 8.11 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 305 8.12 Entropy as a Rate Equation, 309 8.13 Some General Comments about Entropy and Chaos, 311 Summary, 313 Problems, 315 9 SECOND-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME 334 9.1 The Second Law of Thermodynamics for a Control Volume, 334 9.2 The Steady-State Process and the Transient Process, 336 9.3 The Steady-State Single-Flow Process, 345 9.4 Principle of the Increase of Entropy, 349 9.5 Engineering Applications
• Efficiency, 352 9.6 Summary of General Control Volume Analysis, 358 Summary, 359 Problems, 361 10 IRREVERSIBILITY AND AVAILABILITY 381 10.1 Available Energy, Reversible Work, and Irreversibility, 381 10.2 Availability and Second-Law Efficiency, 393 10.3 Exergy Balance Equation, 401 10.4 Engineering Applications, 406 Summary, 407 Problems, 408 11 POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS-WITH PHASE CHANGE 421 11.1 Introduction to Power Systems, 422 11.2 The Rankine Cycle, 424 11.3 Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Rankine Cycle, 427 11.4 The Reheat Cycle, 432 11.5 The Regenerative Cycle, 435 11.6 Deviation of Actual Cycles from Ideal Cycles, 442 11.7 Cogeneration, 447 11.8 Introduction to Refrigeration Systems, 448 11.9 The Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle, 449 11.10 Working Fluids for Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Systems, 452 11.11 Deviation of the Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle from the Ideal Cycle, 453 11.12 Refrigeration Cycle Configurations, 455 11.13 The Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Cycle, 457 Summary, 459 Problems, 460 12 POWER AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS-GASEOUS WORKING FLUIDS 476 12.1 Air-Standard Power Cycles, 476 12.2 The Brayton Cycle, 477 12.3 The Simple Gas-Turbine Cycle with a Regenerator, 484 12.4 Gas-Turbine Power Cycle Configurations, 486 12.5 The Air-Standard Cycle for Jet Propulsion, 489 12.6 The Air-Standard Refrigeration Cycle, 492 12.7 Reciprocating Engine Power Cycles, 494 12.8 The Otto Cycle, 496 12.9 The Diesel Cycle, 500 12.10 The Stirling Cycle, 503 12.11 The Atkinson and Miller Cycles, 503 12.12 Combined-Cycle Power and Refrigeration Systems, 505 Summary, 507 Problems, 509 13 GAS MIXTURES 523 13.1 General Considerations and Mixtures of Ideal Gases, 523 13.2 A Simplified Model of a Mixture Involving Gases and a Vapor, 530 13.3 The First Law Applied to Gas-Vapor Mixtures, 536 13.4 The Adiabatic Saturation Process, 538 13.5 Engineering Applications-Wet-Bulb and Dry-Bulb Temperatures and the Psychrometric Chart, 541 Summary, 547 Problems, 548 14 THERMODYNAMIC RELATIONS 564 14.1 The Clapeyron Equation, 564 14.2 Mathematical Relations for a Homogeneous Phase, 568 14.3 The Maxwell Relations, 570 14.4 Thermodynamic Relations Involving Enthalpy, Internal Energy, and Entropy, 572 14.5 Volume Expansivity and Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility, 578 14.6 Real-Gas Behavior and Equations of State, 580 14.7 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Enthalpy at Constant Temperature, 585 14.8 The Generalized Chart for Changes of Entropy at Constant Temperature, 588 14.9 The Property Relation for Mixtures, 591 14.10 Pseudopure Substance Models for Real-Gas Mixtures, 594 14.11 Engineering Applications-Thermodynamic Tables, 599 Summary, 602 Problems, 604 15 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 615 15.1 Fuels, 615 15.2 The Combustion Process, 619 15.3 Enthalpy of Formation, 626 15.4 First-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 629 15.5 Enthalpy and Internal Energy of Combustion
• Heat of Reaction, 635 15.6 Adiabatic Flame Temperature, 640 15.7 The Third Law of Thermodynamics and Absolute Entropy, 642 15.8 Second-Law Analysis of Reacting Systems, 643 15.9 Fuel Cells, 648 15.10 Engineering Applications, 651 Summary, 656 Problems, 658 16 INTRODUCTION TO PHASE AND CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 672 16.1 Requirements for Equilibrium, 672 16.2 Equilibrium Between Two Phases of a Pure Substance, 674 16.3 Metastable Equilibrium, 678 16.4 Chemical Equilibrium, 679 16.5 Simultaneous Reactions, 689 16.6 Coal Gasification, 693 16.7 Ionization, 694 16.8 Applications, 696 Summary, 698 Problems, 700 17 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 709 17.1 Stagnation Properties, 709 17.2 The Momentum Equation for a Control Volume, 711 17.3 Forces Acting on a Control Surface, 714 17.4 Adiabatic, One-Dimensional, Steady-State Flow of an Incompressible Fluid through a Nozzle, 716 17.5 Velocity of Sound in an Ideal Gas, 718 17.6 Reversible, Adiabatic, One-Dimensional Flow of an Ideal Gas through a Nozzle, 721 17.7 Mass Rate of Flow of an Ideal Gas through an Isentropic Nozzle, 724 17.8 Normal Shock in an Ideal Gas Flowing through a Nozzle, 729 17.9 Nozzle and Diffuser Coefficients, 734 17.10 Nozzle and Orifices as Flow-Measuring Devices, 737 Summary, 741 Problems, 746 CONTENTS OF APPENDIX APPENDIX A SI UNITS: SINGLE-STATE PROPERTIES 755 APPENDIX B SI UNITS: THERMODYNAMIC TABLES 775 APPENDIX C IDEAL-GAS SPECIFIC HEAT 825 APPENDIX D EQUATIONS OF STATE 827 APPENDIX E FIGURES 832 APPENDIX F ENGLISH UNIT TABLES 837 ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS 878 INDEX 889

「Nielsen BookData」 より

## 詳細情報

• NII書誌ID(NCID)
BB00280189
• ISBN
• 9780470171578
• 出版国コード
us
• タイトル言語コード
eng
• 本文言語コード
eng
• 出版地
Hoboken, N.J.
• ページ数/冊数
xvii, 777 p.
• 大きさ
26 cm
• 分類
• 件名

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