Expression and interpretation of negation : an OT typology


Expression and interpretation of negation : an OT typology

Henriëtte de Swart

(Studies in natural language and linguistic theory, v. 77)

Springer, c2010

  • : hbk

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Includes bibliographical references (p. 257-267) and index



t his book applies recently developed tools in strong and weak bidirectional op- mality theory (ot ) as well as an evolutionary modeling of ot in a bidirectional setting to the empirical domain of negation across a wide range of languages. I have long been intrigued by the patterns of semantic variation we find in natural l- guage, and negation has always been one of the topics I was fascinated by. In the past, I have proposed analyses of language-specific observations about not...until in English (de swart 1996), Dutch negative polarity items (n PIs) occurring outside the c-command domain of the licensor (de swart 1998b), the interaction of negation and aspect in French (de swart and Molendijk 1999), scope ambiguities with negative quantifiers in g ermanic (de swart 2000), and negative concord in r omance (de swart and sag 2002). a lthough I felt my proposals were contributing to a better understanding of the phenomena under consideration, they did not lead to an explanatory theory of cross-linguistic variation in the area of negation. Meanwhile, the discussion of semantic universals and cross-linguistic variation in meaning assumed more imp- tance in the literature (cf. von Fintel and Matthewson 2008), which made it all the more urgent to develop such a theory. o ther proposals came along in the literature, exploiting syntactic and lexical notions of variation, and making claims about u- versal grammar and typological generalizations.


Preface.- 1. Negation in a cross-linguistic perspective.1.0 Introduction and overview.1.1 Negation in logic and language.1.2 Negation in typology and diachronic linguistics.1.3. Negative polarity.1.4 Negative concord: observations and issues.1.5 A polyadic quantifier analysis of double negation and negative concord.1.6 Negation and negative indefinites.1.7 Outline of the book.- 2. Expressive and interpretive optimization. 2.0 Introduction and overview. 2.1 Fundamentals of OT as a model of grammar. 2.2 Fundamentals of OT syntax. 2.3 Fundamentals of OT semantics.2.4 Bidirectional Optimality Theory.2.5 Language variation and language change in stochastic OT.2.6 Conclusion.- 3. Markedness of negation.3.0 Introduction and overview.3.1 Propositional negation.3.2 Negation in users of sign language who have suffered brain damage.3.3 Typological variation in the placement of negation.3.4 A dynamic analysis of the Jespersen cycle.3.5 Subordinate clauses and non-finite constructions.3.6 Conclusion.- 4. A typology of negative indefinites.4.0 Introduction and overview.4.1 Negative attraction.4.2 Multiple indefinites under negation: an empirical classification.4.3 Double negation and negative concord as instances of polyadic quantification.4.3.1 Iteration and resumption.4.4 Marking and interpretation of negation in strong bi-directional OT.4.5 Negative concord and negative polarity.4.6 Conclusion.- 5. Sentential negation and negative indefinites. 5.0 Introduction and overview.5.1 Classification of cooccurrence restrictions.5.2 Towards an analysis.5.3 Preverbal/post-verbal asymmetry.5.4 Obligatory marker of sentential negation5.5 Mixed cases.5.6 Two varieties of French.5.7 Negation and negative indefinites in Welsh.5.8 Negation and negative indefinites in Hungarian.5.9 Flemish: a puzzle.5.10 Negative doubling and negative spread.5.11 Conclusion.- 6. More on double negation.6.0 Introduction and overview.6.1 Affixal negation.6.2 Multiple clause negation.6.3 Ambiguities with multiple n-words.6.4 DN and NC languages in strong bi-directional OT.6.5 Double negation in NC languages in weak bi-directional OT.6.6 Conclusion.- 7. Conclusion and perspectives for further research.7.0 Introduction and overview.7.1 Summary of research.7.2 Embedding into a broader theory of cognition.7.3 Perspectives for further research.7.4 Conclusion.- References.- Index Subjects/Names/Languages

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