Cognition, evolution, and behavior


Cognition, evolution, and behavior

Sara J. Shettleworth

Oxford University Press, 2010

2nd ed.

  • : pbk

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 10



Includes bibliographical references and index



How do animals perceive the world, learn, remember, search for food or mates, communicate, and find their way around? Do any nonhuman animals count, imitate one another, use a language, or have a culture? What are the uses of cognition in nature and how might it have evolved? What is the current status of Darwin's claim that other species share the same "mental powers" as humans, but to different degrees? In this completely revised second edition of Cognition, Evolution, and Behavior, Sara Shettleworth addresses these questions, among others, by integrating findings from psychology, behavioral ecology, and ethology in a unique and wide-ranging synthesis of theory and research on animal cognition, in the broadest sense-from species-specific adaptations of vision in fish and associative learning in rats to discussions of theory of mind in chimpanzees, dogs, and ravens. She reviews the latest research on topics such as episodic memory, metacognition, and cooperation and other-regarding behavior in animals, as well as recent theories about what makes human cognition unique. In every part of this new edition, Shettleworth incorporates findings and theoretical approaches that have emerged since the first edition was published in 1998. The chapters are now organized into three sections: Fundamental Mechanisms (perception, learning, categorization, memory), Physical Cognition (space, time, number, physical causation), and Social Cognition (social knowledge, social learning, communication). Shettleworth has also added new chapters on evolution and the brain and on numerical cognition, and a new chapter on physical causation that integrates theories of instrumental behavior with discussions of foraging, planning, and tool using.


Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1. Cognition and the study of behavior 1.1 What is comparative cognition about? 1.2 Kinds of explanation for behavior 1.3 Approaches to comparative cognition 1.4 Summary Chapter 2. Evolution, behavior, and cognition: A primer 2.1 Testing adaptation 2.2 Mapping phylogeny 2.3 Evolution, cognition, and the structure of behavior 2.4 Evolution and the brain 2.5 What does all this have to do with comparative psychology? 2.6 Summarizing and looking ahead Part I. Fundamental Mechanisms Chapter 3. Perception and attention 3.1 Specialized sensory systems 3.2 How can we find out what animals perceive? 3.3 Some psychophysical principles 3.4 Signal detection theory 3.5 Perception and evolution: Sensory ecology 3.6 Search and attention 3.7 Attention and foraging: The behavioral ecology of attention 3.8 Summary Chapter 4. Learning: Introduction and Pavlovian conditioning 4.1 General processes and "constraints on learning" 4.2 A framework for thinking about learning 4.3 When and how will learning evolve? 4.4 Pavlovian conditioning: Conditions for learning 4.5 What is learned? 4.6 Conditional control of behavior: Occasion setting and modulation 4.7 Effects of learning on behavior 4.8 Concluding remarks Chapter 5. Recognition learning 5.1 Habituation 5.2 Perceptual learning 5.3 Imprinting 5.4 The behavioral ecology of social recognition: Recognizing kin 5.5. Forms of recognition learning compared Chapter 6. Discrimination, classification, and concepts 6.1 Three examples 6.2 Untrained responses to natural stimuli 6.3 Classifying complex natural stimuli 6.4 Discrimination learning 6.5 Category discrimination and concepts 6.6 Summary and conclusions Chapter 7. Memory 7.1 Functions and properties of memory 7.2 Methods for studying memory in animals 7.3 Conditions for memory 7.4 Species differences in memory? 7.5 Mechanisms: What is remembered and why is it forgotten? 7.6 Memory and consciousness 7.7 Summary and conclusions Part II. Physical Cognition Chapter 8. Getting around: Spatial cognition 8.1 Mechanisms for spatial orientation 8.2 Modularity and integration 8.3 Acquiring spatial knowledge: The conditions for learning 8.4 Do animals have cognitive maps? 8.5 Summary Chapter 9. Timing 9.1 Circadian rhythms 9.2 Interval timing: Data 9.3 Interval timing: Theories 9.4 Two timing systems? Chapter 10. Numerical competence 10.1 Numerosity discrimination and the analogue magnitude system 10.2 The object tracking system 10.3. Ordinal comparison: Numerosity, serial position, and transitive inference 10.4 Labels and language 10.5 Numerical cognition and comparative psychology Chapter 11. Cognition and the consequences of behavior: Foraging, planning, instrumental learning and using tools 11.1 Foraging 11.2 Long term or short term maximizing: Do animals plan ahead? 11.3 Causal learning and instrumental behavior 11.4 Using tools 11.5 On causal learning and killjoy explanations Part III. Social Cognition Chapter 12. Social intelligence 12.1 The social intelligence hypothesis 12.2 The nature of social knowledge 12.3 Intentionality and social understanding 12.4 Theory of mind 12.5 Cooperation 12.6 Summary Chapter 13. Social learning 13.1 Social learning in context 13.2 Mechanisms : Social learning without imitation 13.3 Mechanisms: Imitation 13.4 Do nonhuman animals teach? 13.5 Animal cultures? 13.6 Conclusions Chapter 14. Communication and language 14.1 Basic issues 14.2 Natural communication systems 14.3 Trying to teach human language to other species 14.4 Language evolution and animal communication: Current directions 14.5 Conclusions Chapter 15. Summing up and looking ahead 15.1 Modularity and the animal mind 15.2 Theory and method in comparative cognition 15.3 Humans vs. other species: Different in degree or kind? 15.4 The future: Tinbergen's four questions, and a fifth one References Index

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