Basic statistical analysis


Basic statistical analysis

Richard C. Sprinthall

Allyn and Bacon, c2007

8th ed

大学図書館所蔵 件 / 1



Includes bibliographical references (p. 637-644) and index

Includes index



The material in this user-friendly text is presented as simply as possible to ensure that students will gain a solid understanding of statistical procedures and analysis. The goal of this book is to demystify and present statistics in a clear, cohesive manner. The student is presented with rules of evidence and the logic behind those rules. The book is divided into three major units: Descriptive Statistics, Inferential Statistics, and Advanced Topics in Inferential Statistics.


Preface I. DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS1. Introduction to StatisticsStumbling Blocks to StatisticsA Brief Look at the History of StatisticsGertrude Cox (1900-1978)Benefits of a Course in StatisticsGeneralFields of StatisticsSummaryKey Terms and NamesProblems2. Percentages, Graphs and Measures of Central TendencyPercentage Changes-Comparing Increases with DecreasesGraphsMeasures of Central TendencyAppropriate Use of the Meanthe Median and the ModeSummaryKey TermsProblemsComputer Problems3. VariabilityMeasures of VariabilityGraphs and VariabilityQuestionnaire PercentagesKey TermsComputer Problems4. The Normal Curve and z ScoresThe Normal Curvez ScoresCarl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)Translating Raw Scores into z Scoresz Score Translation in PracticeFun with your CalculatorSummaryKey Terms and NamesProblems5. z Scores Revisited: T Scores and Other Normal Curve TransformationsOther Applications of the z ScoreThe Percentile TableT ScoresNormal Cure EquivalentsStaninesGrade-Equivalent Scores: A Note of CautionThe Importance of the z ScoreSummaryKey TermsProblems6. ProbabilityThe Definition of ProbabilityBlaise Pascal (1623-1662)Probability and Percentage Areas of the Normal CurveCombining Probabilities for Independent EventsA Reminder about LogicSummaryKey TermsProblemsII. INFERENTIAL STATISTICS7. Statistics and ParametersGeneralizing from the Few to the ManyKey Concepts of Inferential StatisticsTechniques of SamplingSampling DistributionsInfinite versus Finite SamplingGalton and the Concept of ErrorBack to zSome Words of EncouragementSummaryKey TermsProblems8. Parameter Estimates and Hypothesis TestingEstimating the Population Standard DeviationEstimating the Standard Error of the MeanEstimating the Population of the Mean: Interval Estimates and Hypothesis TestingThe t RatioThe Type 1 ErrorAlpha LevelsEffect SizeInterval Estimates: No Hypothesis Test NeededSummaryKey TermsProblemsComputer Problems9. The Fundamentals of Research MethodologyResearch StrategiesIndependent and Dependent VariablesThe Cause-and-Effect TrapTheory of MeasurementResearch: Experimental versus Post FactoThe Experimental Method: The Case of Cause and EffectCreating Equivalent Groups: The True ExperimentDesigning the True ExperimentThe Hawthorne EffectRepeated-Measures Designs with Separate Control GroupsRequirements for the True ExperimentPost Facto-ResearchCombination ResearchResearch ErrorsExperimental ErrorsMeta-AnalysisMethodology as a Basis for More Sophisticated TechniquesSummaryKey TermsProblems10. The Hypothesis of DifferenceSampling Distribution of DifferencesEstimated Standard Error of DifferenceTwo-Sample t Test for Independent SamplesSignificanceWilliam Sealy Gossett (1876-1937)Two-Tailed t TableAlpha Levels and Confidence LevelThe Minimum DifferenceOutlinerOne-Tail t TestImportance of Having at Least Two SamplesPowerEffect SizeSummaryKey TermsProblemsComputer Problems11. The Hypothesis of Association: CorrelationCause and EffectThe Pearson rInterclass versus IntraclassKarl Pearon (1857-1936)Missing DataCorrelation MatrixThe Spearman r s' 293 An Important Difference between the Correlation Correlation Coefficient and t TestSummaryKey Terms and NamesProblemsComputer Problems12. Analysis of VarianceAdvantages of ANOVAThe Bonferroni TestRonald Aylmer, Fisher (1890-1962)Analyzing the VarianceApplications of ANOVAThe Factorial ANOVAEta Square and dGraphing the InteractionSummaryKey Terms and NamesProblemsComputer Problems13. Nominal Data and the Chi SquareChi Square and Independent SamplesLocating the DifferenceChi Square PercentagesSquare and z ScoresChi Square and Dependent SamplesRequirements for Using Chi SquareSummaryKey TermsProblemsComputer ProblemsIII. ADVANCED TOPICS IN INFERENTIAL STATISTICS14. Regression Analysis Regression of Y on XSir Francis Galton (1822-1911)Standard Error of EstimateMultiple R (Linear Regression with More Than Two Variables)Path AnalysisThe Multiple Rand CausationPartial CorrelationSummaryKey Terms and NamesComputer Problems15. Repeated-Measures and Matched-Subjects Designs With Interval DataProblem of Correlated or Dependent SamplesRepeated Measures,Paired t RatioConfidence Interval for Paired DifferencesWithin-Subjects Effect SizeTesting Correlated Experimental DataSummaryKey TermsProblemsComputer Problems16. Nonparametrics Revisited: The Ordinal CaseMann-Whitney U Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Independent SelectionKruskal-Wallis H Test for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Independent SelectionWicoxon T Test for Two Ordinal Distributions with Correlated SelectionFriedman ANOVA By Ranks for Three or More Ordinal Distributions with Correlated SelectionAdvantages and Disadvantages of Nonparametric TestsSummaryKey TermsProblems17. Tests and MeasurementsNorm and Criterion Referencing: Relative Versus Absolute Performance MeasureThe Problem of BiasTest ReliabilityValidityand Measurement TheoryTest ValidityItem AnalysisSummaryKey TermsProblemsComputer Problems18. Computers and Statistical AnalysisComputer LiteracyThe Statistical ProgramsAda Lovelace (nee Byron, 1815-1852)Logic CheckpointsAnswersRecommended Reading19. Research Simulations: Choosing the Correct Statistical TestMethodology: Research's Bottom LineChecklist QuestionsCritical Decision PointsResearch Simulations: From A to ZThe Research EnterpriseA Final Thought: The Burden of ProofSpecial Unit: The Binomial Case Appendix A Appendix B Glossary References Answers to Odd-Numbered Items (and Within-Chapter Exercises) Index Statistical Hall of Fame BiographiesGertrude Cox-Chapter 1Carl Gauss-Chapter 4Blaise Pascal-Chapter 6William Gossett-Chapter 10Karl Pearson-Chapter 11Ronald Fisher-Chapter 12Sir Francis Galton-Chapter 14Ada Lovelace-Chapter 18

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