Bibliographic Information

Introducing philosophy : a text with integrated readings

Robert C. Solomon, Kathleen M. Higgins, Clancy Martin

Oxford University Press, c2016

11th ed

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Includes index

Description and Table of Contents

Description

Introducing Philosophy: A Text with Integrated Readings, Eleventh Edition, is an exciting, accessible, and thorough introduction to the core questions of philosophy and the many ways in which they are, and have been, answered. The authors combine substantial selections from significant works in the history of philosophy with excerpts from current philosophy, clarifying the readings and providing context with their own detailed commentary and explanation. Spanning 2,500 years, the selections range from the oldest known fragments to cutting-edge contemporary essays. Organized topically, the chapters present alternative perspectives-including analytic, continental, feminist, and non-Western viewpoints-alongside the historical works of major Western philosophers.

Table of Contents

  • *=NEW TO THIS EDITION
  • INTRODUCTION
  • A. SOCRATES
  • Aristophanes, from The Clouds
  • Plato, from The Apology
  • from The Crito
  • from The Phaedo
  • from The Republic
  • B. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY?
  • Plato, from The Apology
  • Karl Jaspers, from "The 'Axial Period'"
  • Laozi, from Dao De Jing
  • C. A MODERN APPROACH TO PHILOSOPHY
  • Rene Descartes, from Discourse on Method
  • D. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC
  • Key Terms
  • Bibliography and Further Reading
  • PART ONE. THE WORLD AND BEYOND
  • CHAPTER 1. REALITY
  • A. "THE WAY THE WORLD REALLY IS"
  • Aristotle, from Metaphysics
  • B. THE FIRST GREEK PHILOSOPHERS
  • Parmenides, from Fragments
  • C. ULTIMATE REALITY IN THE EAST: INDIA, PERSIA, AND CHINA
  • From Upanishads
  • From Zend-Avesta
  • From The Confucian Analects
  • Laozi, from Dao De Jing
  • Buddha, from "Fire-Sermon"
  • D. TWO KINDS OF METAPHYSICS: PLATO AND ARISTOTLE
  • Plato, from The Symposium
  • from The Republic
  • from The Meno
  • Aristotle, from Metaphysics
  • from Physics
  • from Metaphysics
  • E. MODERN METAPHYSICS
  • Rene Descartes, On Substance
  • from "Meditation VI"
  • Benedictus de Spinoza, from Ethics
  • Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from Monadology
  • * David Lewis, From Counterfactuals
  • Martin Heidegger, from "The Fundamental Question of Metaphysics"
  • CHAPTER 2. RELIGION
  • A. WHAT IS RELIGION?
  • John Wisdom, from "Gods"
  • Albert Einstein, On the Design of the Universe
  • Keiji Nishitani, from "What Is Religion?"
  • B. THE WESTERN RELIGIONS
  • C. PROVING GOD: THE ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENT
  • St. Anselm, On The Ontological Argument
  • Rene Descartes, On the Ontological Argument
  • Immanuel Kant, Against the Ontological Argument
  • D. GOD AS CREATOR: INTELLIGENCE AND DESIGN
  • St. Thomas Aquinas, Five Arguments for the Existence of God
  • William Paley, From "The Watch and the Watchmaker"
  • St. Thomas Aquinas, On the "Fifth Way"
  • David Hume, from Dialogues on Natural Religion
  • * Cory Juhl, On the Fine-Tuning Argument
  • E. RELIGION, MORALITY, AND EVIL
  • Immanuel Kant, On God and Morality
  • William James, from "The Will to Believe"
  • Blaise Pascal, "The Wager"
  • St. Augustine, from Confessions
  • From The Bhagavadgita
  • F. BEYOND REASON: FAITH AND IRRATIONALITY
  • Mohammad al-Ghazali, from The Deliverance from Error
  • Soren Kierkegaard, On Subjective Truth
  • Paul Tillich, On the Ultimate Concern
  • G. DOUBTS ABOUT GOD AND RELIGION
  • Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from The Brothers Karamazov
  • Karl Marx, from Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right
  • Friedrich Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil
  • from The Antichrist
  • from The Gay Science
  • Sigmund Freud, from The Future of an Illusion
  • * Mary Daly, "Wanted: God or Goddess?"
  • * Victor A. Gunasekara, "The Buddhist Attitude to God"
  • CHAPTER 3. KNOWLEDGE
  • Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
  • * Plato, from The Republic
  • Plato, from Theatetus
  • A. THE RATIONALIST'S CONFIDENCE: DESCARTES
  • Rene Descartes, from "Meditation I"
  • from "Meditation II"
  • from "Meditation VI"
  • B. INNATE IDEAS CONCERNING HUMAN UNDERSTANDING: JOHN LOCKE
  • John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, from New Essays on Human Understanding
  • C. TWO EMPIRICIST THEORIES OF KNOWLEDGE
  • John Locke, from An Essay Concerning Human Understanding
  • Bishop George Berkeley, from Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge
  • D. THE CONGENIAL SKEPTIC: DAVID HUME
  • David Hume, from A Treatise of Human Nature
  • from An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • * E. A CONTEMPORARY CONUNDRUM: KNOWLEDGE AS JUSTIFIED TRUE BELIEF
  • CHAPTER 4.TRUTH & RELATIVISM
  • A.WHAT IS TRUTH?
  • B.THEORIES OF TRUTH
  • * Brand Blanshard, from The Nature of Thought
  • * Charles Peirce, from "How to Make Our Ideas Clear"
  • * William James, from Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking.
  • * Alfred Tarski, from "The Semantic Theory of Truth"
  • C. KANT'S REVOLUTION
  • Immanuel Kant, from The Critique of Pure Reason
  • from Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
  • D. THE BATTLE IN EUROPE AFTER KANT: RELATIVISM AND ABSOLUTISM
  • G. W. F. Hegel, from The Phenomenology of Spirit
  • from Reason in History
  • Arthur Schopenhauer, from The World as Will and Representation
  • Friedrich Nietzsche, On Truth
  • E. PHENOMENOLOGY
  • Edmund Husserl, from "Philosophy as Rigorous Science"
  • from The 1929 Paris Lectures
  • F. HERMENEUTICS AND PRAGMATISM: RELATIVISM RECONSIDERED
  • Richard Rorty, from "Solidarity or Objectivity?"
  • Isamu Nagami, from "Cultural Gaps: Why Do We Misunderstand?"
  • G. THE ANALYTIC TURN
  • Bertrand Russell, from The Problems of Philosophy
  • W. V. O. Quine, from "Epistemology Naturalized"
  • H. FEMINIST EPISTEMOLOGY
  • Elizabeth Grosz, On Feminist Knowledge
  • Uma Narayan, On Feminist Epistemology
  • PART TWO. KNOW THYSELF
  • CHAPTER 5. MIND AND BODY
  • A. WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS?
  • Rene Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
  • from "Meditation III"
  • from "Meditation VI"
  • B. THE PROBLEM OF DUALISM
  • Rene Descartes, from "The Passions of the Soul"
  • C. THE REJECTION OF DUALISM
  • Gilbert Ryle, from The Concept of Mind
  • J. J. C. Smart, from "Sensations and Brain Processes"
  • Jerome Shaffer, Against the Identity Theory
  • Paul M. Churchland, On Eliminative Materialism
  • David Braddon-Mitchell and Frank Jackson, from Philosophy of Mind and Cognition
  • John R. Searle, from "The Myth of the Computer"
  • from Minds, Brains, and Science
  • D. THE PROBLEM OF CONSCIOUSNESS
  • Sigmund Freud, On the "Unconscious"
  • Thomas Nagel, from Mortal Questions
  • Aristotle, from De Anima
  • Galen Strawson, On "Cognitive Experience"
  • * Elizabeth V. Spelman, from "Woman as Body: Ancient and Contemporary Views"
  • CHAPTER 6. SELF
  • A. CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE SELF: FROM DESCARTES TO KANT
  • Rene Descartes, from "Meditation VI"
  • John Locke, On Personal Identity
  • David Hume, On "There Is No Self"
  • Immanuel Kant, Against the Soul
  • Meredith Michaels, On "Personal Identity"
  • * Derek Parfit, from Reasons and Persons
  • B. EXISTENTIALISM: SELF-IDENTITY AND THE RESPONSIBILITY OF CHOICE
  • Jean-Paul Sartre, On Existentialism
  • * On Bad Faith
  • from No Exit
  • C. THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE COMMUNITY
  • Soren Kierkegaard, On "The Public"
  • On Self and Passion
  • Martin Heidegger, On "Dasein" and the "They"
  • David Reisman, On Individualism
  • Malcolm X, On Being "African"
  • from "At the Audubon"
  • Sherry Ortner, from "Is Female to Male as Nature Is to Culture?"
  • Ann Ferguson, On Androgyny
  • * Dierdre McClosky, from Crossing
  • D. ONE SELF? ANY SELF? QUESTIONING THE CONCEPT OF PERSONAL "ESSENCE"
  • Hermann Hesse, from Steppenwolf
  • Luce Irigaray, from This Sex Which Is Not One
  • Genevieve Lloyd, from "The Man of Reason"
  • From The Dhammapada
  • Laozi, from Dao De Jing
  • CHAPTER 7. FREEDOM
  • A. FATALISM AND KARMA
  • Sophocles, from Oedipus the King
  • Keiji Nishitani, On Fate
  • B. PREDESTINATION
  • St. Augustine, from On Free Choice of the Will
  • Muhammad Iqbal, from The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
  • Jacqueline Trimier, on the Yoruba Ori
  • Jonathan Edwards, from "Freedom of the Will"
  • C. DETERMINISM
  • Baron Paul Henri d'Holbach, from System of Nature
  • Daniel Dennett, from Elbow Room
  • Robert Kane, On Indeterminism
  • John Stuart Mill, On Causation and Necessity
  • David Hume, On Causation and Character
  • Robert Kane, On "Wiggle Room"
  • Harry Frankfurt, from "Freedom of the Will and the Concept of a Person"
  • D. COMPULSION AND IGNORANCE
  • Aristotle, On Voluntary Action
  • Judith Orr, "Sex, Ignorance, and Freedom"
  • John Hospers, from "What Means This Freedom?"
  • B. F. Skinner, Beyond Freedom
  • B. F. Skinner, from Walden Two
  • Robert Kane, Beyond Skinner
  • Anthony Burgess, from A Clockwork Orange
  • Catherine MacKinnon, On Coercion of Women's Sexuality
  • E. FREEDOM IN PRACTICE: KANT'S SOLUTION
  • F. RADICAL FREEDOM: EXISTENTIALISM
  • Jean-Paul Sartre, On "Absolute Freedom"
  • Fyodor Dostoyevsky, from "The Most Advantageous Advantage"
  • Thich Nhat Hanh, from "Turning on the Television"
  • PART THREE. THE GOOD AND THE RIGHT
  • CHAPTER 8. ETHICS
  • A. MORALITY
  • B. IS MORALITY RELATIVE?
  • Gilbert Harman, from "Moral Relativism Defended"
  • St. Thomas Aquinas, from The Summa Theologica
  • John Corvino, from Same Sex: Debating the Ethics, Science, and Culture of Homosexuality
  • C. EGOISM AND ALTRUISM
  • Plato, from The Republic
  • * Tara Smith, On the Necessity of Egoism (Ayn Rand)
  • D. ARE WE NATURALLY SELFISH? A DEBATE
  • Mencius, On Human Nature: Man Is Good
  • Xunzi, from "Human Nature Is Evil"
  • Joseph Butler, Against Egoism
  • E. MORALITY AS VIRTUE: ARISTOTLE
  • Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
  • F. MORALITY AND SENTIMENT: HUME AND ROUSSEAU
  • David Hume, On "Reason as Slave of the Passions"
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from Emile
  • G. MORALITY AND PRACTICAL REASON: KANT
  • Immanuel Kant, from Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysics of Morals
  • H. UTILITARIANISM
  • Jeremy Bentham, from An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
  • John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
  • I. THE CREATION OF MORALITY: NIETZSCHE AND EXISTENTIALISM
  • Friedrich Nietzsche, On "Morality as Herd-Instinct"
  • On "Master and Slave Morality"
  • Jean-Paul Sartre, from Existentialism as a Humanism
  • * Simone de Beauvoir, from The Ethics of Ambiguity
  • J. ETHICS AND GENDER
  • VIRGINIA HELD, ON FEMINIST ETHICS
  • CHAPTER 9. JUSTICE
  • A. THE PROBLEM OF JUSTICE
  • B. TWO ANCIENT THEORIES OF JUSTICE: PLATO AND ARISTOTLE
  • Plato, from The Republic
  • Aristotle, from The Nicomachean Ethics
  • C. TWO MODERN THEORIES OF JUSTICE: HUME AND MILL ON UTILITY AND RIGHTS
  • David Hume, on "Justice and Utility"
  • John Stuart Mill, from Utilitarianism
  • D. THE SOCIAL CONTRACT
  • Thomas Hobbes, from Leviathan
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau, from The Social Contract
  • Thomas Jefferson et al., from The Declaration of Independence
  • E. FAIRNESS AND ENTITLEMENT
  • John Rawls, from "Justice as Fairness"
  • Robert Nozick, from Anarchy, State, and Utopia
  • F. JUSTICE OR CARE: A FEMINIST PERSPECTIVE
  • Cheshire Calhoun, from "Justice, Care, Gender Bias"
  • * Maria Lugones, from "Playfulness, World-Traveling, and Loving Perception"
  • G. INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOM
  • John Locke, from The Second Treatise on Government
  • from On Liberty
  • Malcolm X, On Civil and Human Rights
  • Amartya Sen, from "Property and Hunger"
  • H. FIGHTING FOR RIGHTS AND JUSTICE: CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE
  • Henry David Thoreau, from "Resistance to Civil Government" ("Civil Disobedience")
  • Martin Luther King, Jr., from "Letter from Birmingham Jail"

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Details

  • NCID
    BB26895429
  • ISBN
    • 9780190209452
  • LCCN
    2015021017
  • Country Code
    us
  • Title Language Code
    eng
  • Text Language Code
    eng
  • Place of Publication
    New York
  • Pages/Volumes
    xxxii, 704 p.
  • Size
    26 cm
  • Classification
  • Subject Headings
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