Protectionism has been an enduring feature in the world economy even though economic theory can prove that free trade is a superior regime. Protectionism is, of course, caused primarily by interest groups who lose out under free trade and are able to organize to protect their interests.
This major reference collection brings together some different theoretical approaches to the issue of commercial policy and how it is constructed. It also illuminates some of the complexities behind alternating phases of comparatively free trade and protectionism in the world economy over the last two centuries. Individual country studies bring out some variety in the experience, both in the origins of protectionist policies and of their impact. The conclusions add up to a considerable indictment of protectionism.
PART I: THEORY
1. Jagdish N. Bhagwati (1982), `Directly Unproductive, Profit-seeking (DUP) Activities'
2. Harry G. Johnson (1965), `An Economic Theory of Protectionism, Tariff Bargaining, and the Formation of Customs Unions'
3. C.P. Kindleberger (1951), `Group Behavior and International Trade'
4. Lionel Robbins (1931), `Economic Notes on Some Arguments for Protection'
PART II: GREAT BRITAIN
5. Ralph Davis (1966), `The Rise of Protection in England, 1689-1786'
6. J. Bartlett Brebner (1948), `Laissez Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain'
7. Donald N. McCloskey (1980), `Magnanimous Albion: Free Trade and British National Income, 1841-1881'
8. A.E. Musson (1972), `"The Manchester School" and Exportation of Machinery'
9. Barry Eichengreen (1991), `The External Fiscal Question: Free Trade and Protection in Britain, 1860-1929'
10. Forrest Capie (1978), `The British Tariff and Industrial Protection in the 1930s'
PART III: UNITED STATES
11. J.J. Pincus (1975), `Pressure Groups and the Pattern of Tariffs'
12. G.R. Hawke (1975), ` The United States Tariff and Industrial Protection in the Late Nineteenth Century'
13. M.E. Falcus (1971), `United States Economic Policy and the "Dollar Gap" of the 1920s'
PART IV: CONTINENTAL EUROPE
14. Michael Stephen Smith (1980), `Compromise and Conciliation, 1883-1900'
15. W.O. Henderson (1965), `Prince Smith and Free Trade in Germany'
16. Steven B. Webb (1980), `Tariffs, Cartels, Technology, and Growth in the German Steel Industry, 1879 to 1914'
17. A. Gerschenkron (1943), `Agricultural Protection in the German Empire'
18. Frank J. Coppa (1970), `The Italian Tariff and the Conflict Between Agriculture and Industry: The Commercial Policy of Liberal Italy, 1860-1922'
19. C.P. Kindleberger (1975), `The Rise of Free Trade in Western Europe, 1820-1875'
20. Forrest Capie (1983), `Tariff Protection and Economic Performance in the Nineteenth Century'
PART V: OTHER
21. Bela Balassa (1956), `Tariff Protection in Industrial Countries: An Evaluation'
22. Kenneth Fielden (1969), `The Rise and Fall of Free Trade'
23. John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson (1953), `The Imperalism of Free Trade'
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