The new century handbook
The new century handbook
大学図書館所蔵 件 / 全4件
The first writing handbook developed for today's writers who use computers to write, The New Century Handbook is the perfect tutorial or reference tool for writers of any level. The comprehensive handbook provides complete coverage of writing, style, grammar, punctuation, mechanics, documenting sources, avoiding plagiarism, business writing, and research writing. Whether you need help writing a resume, e-mail, or paper, renowned professors Christine Hult and Thomas Huckin's friendly writing style will help you improve your writing. Featuring clear explanations, examples, and writing samples, this handbook is a "must have" for any writer.
I. WRITING. 1. Writing in the New Century. a. Why do we Write? b. How do we communicate. c. How can this handbook help you? d. Writing in the New Century. 2. Critical Thinking, Reading, and Viewing. a. Think critically. b. Read actively and critically. c. View actively and critically. 3. Preparing. a. An overview of the writing process. b. Experiment and explore. c. Invent and prewrite. d. Gather information. e. Plan and organize. f. Try prewriting software. 4. Composing. a. Review. b. Draft. c. Collaborate. d. Try composing with a computer. e. Review a student draft. 5. Rewriting. a. Shift from writer to reader. b. Revise. c. Edit. d. Proofread. e. Give and receive feedback. f. Review a model student paper. 6. Paragraphs. a. Write unified paragraphs. b. Write coherent paragraphs with clear patterns of organization. c. Write coherent paragraphs with sentence-linking techniques. d. Be consistent with verb tense, person, and number. e. Use parallelism to make sentences coherent. f. Decide on appropriate paragraph length. g. Link paragraphs together with key words. h. Construct effective introductory and concluding paragraphs. 7. Formulating Arguments. a. Formulate an arguable thesis. b. Consider your purpose and audience. c. Generate good supporting evidence. d. Take note of evidence for alternative views. e. Develop and test your main points. f. Build a compelling case. g. Avoid logical and emotional fallacies. h. Structure the argument. i. Electronic argument. j. Visual argument. II. RESEARCH. 8. The Research Project. a. Become a researcher. b. Schedule a time frame. c. Create a research notebook. d. Create a working bibliography. e. Gather background information. f. Conduct focused research. 9. Using the Internet for research. a. Use Internet sources throughout the research process. b. Get to know the Internet and Web. c. Search the Internet and Web. d. Model searches of both the Internet and library databases. 10. Evaluating Electronic and Print Sources. a. Choose legitimate sources. b. Follow a student's evaluation of Web links. 11. Using Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism. a. Use sources responsibly. b. Paraphrase sources accurately. c. Summarize sources briefly. d. Quote sources sparingly. 12. Writing the Research Paper. a. Review your rhetorical stance and thesis. b. Plan a structure. c. Write a draft. d. Review and revise your draft. e. Follow formatting conventions. f. Review an annotated student research paper. 13. MLA Documentation Format. a. Document using the MLA system. b. Electronic media in MLA style. 14. APA Documentation Format. a. Document using the APA system. b. Electronic media in APA style. 15. CMS, CBE, and COS Formats. a. Document using the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) system of documentation. b. Document by using the CBE system. c. Document using the COS system. III. WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES. 16. Disciplinary Discourse. a. Disciplinary research. b. Disciplinary discourse. 17. Writing in the Humanities. a. Know the different types of writing in the humanities. b. Writing interpretively or analytically about literature. c. Review some model student papers. d. Look to the Internet and library for resources. 18. Writing in the Natural Sciences. a. Know the different types of writing in the natural sciences. b. Write objectively about science. c. An example of a research report in CBE format. d. Look to the Internet and library for resources. 19. Writing in the Social Sciences a. Know the different types of writing in the social sciences. b. Write persuasively about social science. c. Review a sample research report in APA format. d. Look to the Internet and library for resources. IV. DESIGN IN PRINT AND ON THE WEB. 20. Design Principles and Graphics. a. Follow the three basic design principles. b. Use formatting tools. c. Use graphics. d. Respect different norms and preferences. 21. Designing Print Documents. a. Produce a simple brochure. b. Produce a simple newsletter. 22. Designing Web Documents. a. Generate a basic design for the Web. b. Plan your Web document. 23. Writing Web Pages. a. Methods used to construct Web pages. b. HTML editors and HTML codes. c. Evaluate and refine your Web site. d. Transfer your website to an Internet server. V. WRITING FOR DIFFERENT PURPOSES. 24. Email and Electronic Communications. a. Building community through electronic mail. b. Build community through online networks. c. Build community through instant communication. d. Use classroom Web tools. e. Write collaboratively online. 25. Business Correspondence and Reports. a. Write concise and professional business letters. b. Write specifically tailored letters of application. c. Write densely but appropriately packed resumes. d. Write clearly organized reports. b. Write focused memos. 26. Oral Presentations Using PowerPoint and Other Tools. a. Prepare thoroughly. b. Pick your visual aids carefully. c. Practice, practice, practice. d. Speak with enthusiasm and focus. e. Using overhead transparencies. c. Using PowerPointTM effectively. 27. Essay Exams. a. Prepare for an essay exam. b. Attend to the writing process. c. Review sample student responses to an essay exam question. 28. Writing Portfolios. a. Learn about types of portfolios. b. Develop a writing portfolio. c. Prepare the final document. d. A sample reflective cover letter. VI. SENTENCE GRAMMAR. 29. Word-Processing Tools for Improving Sentences. a. Use a grammar checker with caution . b. Sentence revision applications. c. Use other applications. 30. Sentence Structure. a. Learn to identify parts of speech. b. Learn to identify basic sentence patterns. c. Learn to expand sentences. d. Learn how to classify sentences. 31. Pronoun Case. a. Use the subjective case when a pronoun functions as a sentence subject, clause subject, or subject complement. b. Use the objective case when a pronoun functions as an object. c. Test for pronoun case in compound constructions by using the pronoun alone. d. Choose the form for an interrogative or relative pronoun based on how it functions in its clause. e. Distinguish between possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns. f. Choose the case for a pronoun in a comparison based on how it would function in its own clause. 32. Verbs. a. Learn the regular verb forms. b. Learn common irregular verb forms. c. Know how to use auxiliary verbs. d. Learn the verb tenses. e. Observe sequence of tenses. f. Use transitive and intransitive verbs correctly. g. Favor active over passive voice. h. Make sure verbs are in the proper mood. 33. Agreement. a. Make verbs agree in number and person with their grammatical subjects. b. Make pronouns agree in number and gender with their antecedents. 34. Adjectives and Adverbs. a. Use of adjectives to modify nouns. b. Avoid overuse of nouns as modifiers. c. Use adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, other adverbs, and clauses. d. Be aware of some commonly confused adjectives and adverbs. e. Use comparative and superlative forms of adjectives and adverbs correctly. VII. CORRECT SENTENCES. 35. Sentence Fragments. a. Make sentences grammatically complete. b. Connect dependent clauses. c. Connect phrases. d. Use sentence fragments only for special effect. 36. Comma Splices and Run-On Sentences. a. One clause into a subordinate clause. b. Separate clauses with a comma and a coordinating conjunction. c. Separate independent clauses with a semicolon. d. Separate turn independent clauses with a period. 37. Pronoun Reference. a. Refer to a specific noun antecedent. b. Avoid vague use of this, that, which, andit. c. Avoid mixed uses of it. d. Be consistent with use of that, which, andwho. 38. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. a. Position modifiers close to the words the modify. b. Avoid ambiguity. c. Try to put lengthy modifiers at the beginning or end. d. Avoid disruptive modifiers. e. Avoid dangling modifiers. 39. Faulty Shifts. a. Avoid unnecessary shifts in person and number. b. Avoid unnecessary shifts in verb tense, mood, subject, and voice. c. Avoid shifts in tone. d. Avoid mixed constructions. e. Create consistency between subjects and predicates. f. Avoid unmarked shifts between direct and indirect discourse. VIII. EFFECTIVE SENTENCES. 40. Clarity and Conciseness. a. Avoid excessively long sentences. b. Avoid unnecessary repetition and redundancy. c. Use Expletives only where appropriate. d. Use passive voice only where appropriate. e. Eliminate wordy phrases. f. Avoid a noun-heavy style. g. Choose words that express your meaning precisely. h. Use that to clarify sentence structure. i. Make comparisons complete and clear. j. Avoid multiple negation. 41. Coordination and Subordination. a. Look for a way to combine closely related sentences. b. Coordinate related sentences of equal value. c. Subordinate less important ideas. 42. Parallelism. a. Put parallel content in parallel form. b. Make all items in a list or series parallel. c. Use parallelism with correlative conjunctions. d. Use parallelism for comparisons or contrasts. e. Make parallel constructions complete and clear. f. Use parallelism to enhance coherence. 43. Emphasis. a. Create emphasis through end-weight. b. Create emphasis through selective repetition. c. Create emphasis through contrast. d. Create emphasis through careful word choice. e. Create emphasis through punctuation or typography. 44. Variety. a. Vary sentence length. b. Vary sentence structure. c. Avoid excessive repetition. d. Respect different standards and purposes. IX. EFFECTIVE WORDS. 45. Choosing the Right Words. a. Choose the right denotation. b. Choose the right connotation. c. Find the right level of formality. d. Avoid jargon, slang, or dialect. e. Avoid pretentiousness. f. Try to please the ear. g. Use figurative language thoughtfully. 46. Language And Power. a. "Correctness." b. Language and identity. c. Avoid biased gender references. d. Avoid biased language about race and ethnicity. e. Avoid biased language about age. f. Avoid biased language about other differences. 47. Building a Powerful Vocabulary. a. Learn roots, prefixes, and suffixes. b. Learn denotations and connotations. c. Learn related words. 48. Using a Thesaurus and a Dictionary. a. Use a thesaurus to find the exact word. b. Use a dictionary to learn about words. 49. Spelling. a. Use a spell checker. b. Master troublesome homophones. c. Guard against common spelling errors. d. Learn general spelling rules and patterns. X. PUNCTUATION. 50. End Punctuation. a. Use a period to mark the end of a statement. b. Use periods to punctuate initials and many abbreviations. c. Use periods to mark basic divisions in units and computer names. d. Avoid common misuses of periods. e. Use a question mark after a direct request. f. Do not use a question mark after an indirect question. g. Use an exclamation point to signal a strong statement. 51. The Comma. a. Use a comma to set off an introductory phrase or clause. b. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction to separate independent clauses. c. Use commas between items in a series. d. Use commas to separate coordinate adjectives. e. Use commas to set off nonessential elements. f. Use commas to set off conjunctive adverbs. g. Use commas with dates, place names and addresses, titles and degrees, and numbers. h. Use commas with speaker tags. i. Use commas with markers of direct address. j. Avoid misuse of commas. 52. The Semicolon. a. Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses not linked by a coordinating conjunction. b. Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses linked by a conjunctive adverb. c. Use semicolons in a series with internal punctuation. d. Place semicolons outside quotation marks. e. Avoid common semicolon errors. 53. The Colon. a. Use a colon to introduce a list or an appositive. b. Use a colon to set off a second independent clause that explains the first. c. Use a colon to introduce a quotation. d. Use colons in titles. e. Use colons in business letters and memos. f. Use colons in numbers and addresses. 54. The Apostrophe. a. Use apostrophes with nouns to indicate possession. b. Use apostrophes to indicate contractions and omitted letters. c. Use apostrophes to mark certain plural forms. d. Avoid misusing the apostrophe. 55. Quotation Marks. a. Use quotation marks for exact direct quotations. b. Use quotation marks to suggest skepticism about a term. c. Use quotation marks to indicate shifts in register. d. Use quotation marks when citing titles of short works. e. Follow standard practice in using other punctuation with quotations. f. Avoid misusing quotation marks. 56. Other Punctuation Marks. a. Use parentheses to insert parenthetical comments. b. Do not overuse parentheses. c. Use parentheses around letters or numbers to set off embedded lists. d. Use dashes to highlight extra informational comments. e. Use dashes to set off important or surprising points. f. Confine yourself to one pair of dashes per sentence. g. Use brackets to insert editorial comments or clarifications into quotations. h. Use brackets with the word sic. i. Use brackets to acknowledge editorial emphasis within a quotation. j. Use brackets for parenthetical comments within parentheses. k. Use an ellipsis to indicate a deletion from a quotation. l. Use an ellipsis to indicate a pause in a sentence. m. Use brackets around ellipses in quotations to differentiate them from the authors ellipses. mn Use slashes to separate lines of poetry quoted within a sentence. o. Use a slash to show alternatives. p. Use a slash to indicate a fraction. q. Use slashes in internet addresses. r. Use slashes in writing dates informally. Xi. MECHANICS. 57. Capital Letters and Italics. a. Capitalize the first word of all freestanding sentences. b. Capitalize all names, associated titles, and proper adjectives. c. Capitalize all significant words in titles. d. Follow the owners preference in capitalizing email addresses and urls. e. Italicize titles of independent creative works. f. Italicize urls and email addresses. g. Italicize names of vehicles. h. Italicize foreign words and phrases. i. Italicize words, letters and numbers referred to as such. j. Italicize words for emphasis. 58. Abbreviations and Numbers. a. Abbreviate titles, ranks, and degrees only before or after full names. b. Use abbreviations after numerical dates and times. c. Use latin abbreviations sparingly. d. Use acronyms and initialisms only if their meaning is clear. e. Avoid most other abbreviations in formal writing. f. Use figures with abbreviations and conventionally numerical references. g. Write out other numbers that can be expressed in one or two words. h. Write out numbers that begin sentences. i. When one number modifies another, write one as a figure and the other as a word. j. Write related numbers alike. 59. The Hyphen. a. Consult your dictionary on hyphenating compounds. b. Hyphenate compounds acting as adjectives before nouns. c. Hyphenate spelled-out fractions and numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine. d. Hyphenate to avoid ambiguity and awkward spellings. e. Use hyphens for end-of-line word division. XII. ESL ISSUES. 60. Tips on Nouns and Articles. a. Use the plural only with count nouns. b. Use the for specific references. c. Use the with most proper nouns derived from common nouns. d. Use a or an in nonspecific references to singular count nouns. e. Use no article in nonspecific references to plural count nouns or noncount nouns. f. Use other determiners correctly. 61. Tips on Verbs. a. Note phrasal verbs as you listen and read. b. Learn which verbs take gerunds as complements. c. Learn which verbs take to infinitives as complements. d. Learn which verbs take both gerunds and to infinitives as complements. e. Learn which verbs take only unmarked infinitives as complements. f. Do not use the progressive tone with verbs of state. g. Use only a base verb form immediately after a modal auxiliary. h. Do not use more than one modal at a time. i. In factual conditionals, use the same verb tense in both parts. j. In predictive conditionals, use a present-tense verb in the if clause and an appropriate modal in the result clause. k. In hypothetical conditionals, use a past-tense verb in the if clause and would, could, or might in the result clause. 62. Tips on Word Order. a. Use inverted word order in sentences. b. String adjectives in the order preferred in English. c. String nouns for easiest recognition. d. Use meaning to place adverbs that modify verbs. e. Place adverbs directly before adjectives or adverbs that they modify. f. Place adverbs before sentences or clauses that they modify. g. Do not put an adverb between a verb and its object. 63. Tips on Vocabulary. a. Look for cognates, but watch out for "false friends." b. Try to get a feel for collocations. c. Learn idioms in their entirety. Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms. Glossary of Usage. Credits. Index.
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